Histomorphological Pattern Analysis of Endometrial Carcinomas in a Tertiary Care Hospital
Background: Endometrial carcinoma which has various histological types is the commonest invasive cancer of female genital tract. Two general groups of endometrial cancer include Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 tumors are related to prolonged estrogenic stimulation and include endometrioid type and type 2 includes serous carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and carcinosarcoma.
Materials and methods: The present study is a retrospective study conducted in the department of pathology at BGS GIMS from January 2018- January 2021. All the endometrial carcinoma specimens obtained from D&C and hysterectomy specimens were assessed on paraffin embedded sections stained with H&E stain and immunohistochemical study was done wherever required.
Results : In the present study 33 cases of endometrial carcinoma cases were analyzed. Majority of them were >60years (36.5%) and most were post-menopausal females .Most common clinical presentation was abnormal uterine / post-menopausal bleeding seen in 100% of cases . The most common histological type observed was endometrioid type (81.8% )of endometrial carcinoma followed by serous carcinoma(6.4%)and carcinosarcoma(6.4%). One case of endometrioid carcinoma with secretory differentiation was reported. Most of endoemetrioid carcinomas belonged to FIGO histological grade 1(71.4%) and the most common TNM stage was Stage 1A (60%) with majority of them showing less than half of myometrial invasion(60%). Importance of IHC in differentiating variants of endometrial carcinoma found to be very significant.
Conclusion: Endoemetrioid type of endometrial carcinoma was the most common histological type seen and generally present in early stage and carry good prognosis when compared to other variants like serous carcinoma, adenosarcoma which present in late stages and carry bad prognosis. Detailed study of histological appearance of endometrial carcinoma provides insight into prognosis and plays a role in determining therapy.
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