Published July 15, 2022 | Version v1
Dataset Open

PANACEA dataset - Heterogeneous COVID-19 Claims

  • 1. University of Warwick
  • 2. Queen-Mary University of London


The peer-reviewed publication for this dataset has been presented in the 2022 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (NAACL), and can be accessed here: Please cite this when using the dataset.


This dataset contains a heterogeneous set of True and False COVID claims and online sources of information for each claim.


The claims have been obtained from online fact-checking sources, existing datasets and research challenges. It combines different data sources with different foci, thus enabling a comprehensive approach that combines different media (Twitter, Facebook, general websites, academia), information domains (health, scholar, media), information types (news, claims) and applications (information retrieval, veracity evaluation).


The processing of the claims included an extensive de-duplication process eliminating repeated or very similar claims. The dataset is presented in a LARGE and a SMALL version, accounting for different degrees of similarity between the remaining claims (excluding respectively claims with a 90% and 99% probability of being similar, as obtained through the MonoT5 model). The similarity of claims was analysed using BM25 (Robertson et al., 1995; Crestani et al., 1998; Robertson and Zaragoza, 2009) with MonoT5 re-ranking (Nogueira et al., 2020), and BERTScore (Zhang et al., 2019).


The processing of the content also involved removing claims making only a direct reference to existing content in other media (audio, video, photos); automatically obtained content not representing claims; and entries with claims or fact-checking sources in languages other than English.


The claims were analysed to identify types of claims that may be of particular interest, either for inclusion or exclusion depending on the type of analysis. The following types were identified: (1) Multimodal; (2) Social media references; (3) Claims including questions; (4) Claims including numerical content; (5) Named entities, including: PERSON − People, including fictional; ORGANIZATION − Companies, agencies, institutions, etc.; GPE − Countries, cities, states; FACILITY − Buildings, highways, etc. These entities have been detected using a RoBERTa base English model (Liu et al., 2019) trained on the OntoNotes Release 5.0 dataset (Weischedel et al., 2013) using Spacy.


The original labels for the claims have been reviewed and homogenised from the different criteria used by each original fact-checker into the final True and False labels.


The data sources used are:

- The CoronaVirusFacts/DatosCoronaVirus Alliance Database.

- CoAID dataset (Cui and Lee, 2020)

- MM-COVID (Li et al., 2020)

- CovidLies (Hossain et al., 2020)

- TREC Health Misinformation track

- TREC COVID challenge (Voorhees et al., 2021; Roberts et al., 2020)


The LARGE dataset contains 5,143 claims (1,810 False and 3,333 True), and the SMALL version 1,709 claims (477 False and 1,232 True).


The entries in the dataset contain the following information:

- Claim. Text of the claim.

- Claim label. The labels are: False, and True.

- Claim source. The sources include mostly fact-checking websites, health information websites, health clinics, public institutions sites, and peer-reviewed scientific journals.

- Original information source. Information about which general information source was used to obtain the claim.

- Claim type. The different types, previously explained, are: Multimodal, Social Media, Questions, Numerical, and Named Entities.


Funding. This work was supported by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (grant no. EP/V048597/1, EP/T017112/1). ML and YH are supported by Turing AI Fellowships funded by the UK Research and Innovation (grant no. EP/V030302/1, EP/V020579/1).



- Arana-Catania M., Kochkina E., Zubiaga A., Liakata M., Procter R., He Y.. Natural Language Inference with Self-Attention for Veracity Assessment of Pandemic Claims. NAACL 2022

- Stephen E Robertson, Steve Walker, Susan Jones, Micheline M Hancock-Beaulieu, Mike Gatford, et al. 1995. Okapi at trec-3. Nist Special Publication Sp,109:109.

- Fabio Crestani, Mounia Lalmas, Cornelis J Van Rijsbergen, and Iain Campbell. 1998. “is this document relevant?. . . probably” a survey of probabilistic models in information retrieval. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 30(4):528–552.

- Stephen Robertson and Hugo Zaragoza. 2009. The probabilistic relevance framework: BM25 and beyond. Now Publishers Inc.

- Rodrigo Nogueira, Zhiying Jiang, Ronak Pradeep, and Jimmy Lin. 2020. Document ranking with a pre-trained sequence-to-sequence model. In Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: Findings, pages 708–718.

- Tianyi Zhang, Varsha Kishore, Felix Wu, Kilian Q Weinberger, and Yoav Artzi. 2019. Bertscore: Evaluating text generation with bert. In International Conference on Learning Representations.

- Yinhan Liu, Myle Ott, Naman Goyal, Jingfei Du, Mandar Joshi, Danqi Chen, Omer Levy, Mike Lewis, Luke Zettlemoyer, and Veselin Stoyanov. 2019. Roberta: A robustly optimized bert pretraining approach. arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.11692.

- Ralph Weischedel, Martha Palmer, Mitchell Marcus, Eduard Hovy, Sameer Pradhan, Lance Ramshaw, Nianwen Xue, Ann Taylor, Jeff Kaufman, Michelle Franchini, et al. 2013. Ontonotes release 5.0 ldc2013t19. Linguistic Data Consortium, Philadelphia, PA, 23.

- Limeng Cui and Dongwon Lee. 2020. Coaid: Covid-19 healthcare misinformation dataset. arXiv preprint arXiv:2006.00885.

- Yichuan Li, Bohan Jiang, Kai Shu, and Huan Liu. 2020. Mm-covid: A multilingual and multimodal data repository for combating covid-19 disinformation.

- Tamanna Hossain, Robert L. Logan IV, Arjuna Ugarte, Yoshitomo Matsubara, Sean Young, and Sameer Singh. 2020. COVIDLies: Detecting COVID-19 misinformation on social media. In Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on NLP for COVID-19 (Part 2) at EMNLP 2020, Online. Association for Computational Linguistics.

- Ellen Voorhees, Tasmeer Alam, Steven Bedrick, Dina Demner-Fushman, William R Hersh, Kyle Lo, Kirk Roberts, Ian Soboroff, and Lucy Lu Wang. 2021. Trec-covid: constructing a pandemic information retrieval test collection. In ACM SIGIR Forum, volume 54, pages 1–12. ACM New York, NY, USA.



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Additional details


Learning from COVID-19: An AI-enabled evidence-driven framework for claim veracity assessment during pandemics EP/V048597/1
UK Research and Innovation