Published April 13, 2022 | Version v1
Journal article Open

Características da prescrição de atividade física e exercício por Fisioterapeutas para prevenção de quedas em idosos residentes na comunidade: uma revisão sistemática

  • 1. KinesioLab – Research Unit in Human Movement, RECI – Research Unit in Education and Community Intervention, Piaget Institute, Portugal
  • 2. Escola Superior de Saúde Jean Piaget Vila Nova de Gaia, Instituto Piaget, Portugal
  • 3. KinesioLab – Research Unit in Human Movement, Piaget Institute, Portugal

Description

Enquadramento: As quedas em idosos acima dos 65 anos, provocadas por alterações aos sistemas de movimento, podem resultar em reduções drásticas da funcionalidade e independência. Torna-se fundamental a ação dos Fisioterapeutas na sua prevenção. Objetivos: Interpretar os programas e tipos de intervenção na prevenção de quedas em idosos, especificamente produzidos por Fisioterapeutas. Métodos: Registo PROSPERO com ID: CRD42021229343. Os estudos identificados, foram recolhidos nas bases de dados: PubMed, PEDro, Ovid e Web of Science. Pesquisa limitada a 10 anos e análise da qualidade utilizando a escala de PEDro, incluindo-se aqueles com 6 ou mais valores. Incluídos apenas ensaios clínicos randomizados que avaliassem os efeitos de programas de exercício na redução do número de quedas em idosos. Programas orientados a idosos com idade igual ou superior a 65 anos. Excluíram-se indivíduos com condições de saúde associadas. Resultados: 23 registos selecionados para análise. Observaram-se efeitos na redução de quedas em 73,9% dos estudos e 43,5% mostraram resultados significativos dos programas implementados comparando com os grupos de controlo. As componentes de adaptabilidade e força foram as mais utilizadas e os programas multicomponentes foram os que indicaram maior grau de eficácia. Conclusões: demonstra-se forte evidência na eficácia de redução de quedas em idosos quando aplicados programas de exercício multicomponentes. Programas com maior eficácia têm frequência semanal de 1 a 2 vezes e por períodos de até 6 meses, com foco nas componentes de adaptabilidade, força, resistência e flexibilidade. Considerou-se útil e fácil de utilizar a categorização da teoria contínua do movimento para descrever e interpretar as intervenções.

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