Published March 30, 2022 | Version 1
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Mechanism of landslide induced by glacier-retreat on the Tungnakvíslarjökull area, Iceland

  • 1. ISTERRE, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Univ. Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS, IRD, UGE, ISTerre, 380005, Grenoble, France
  • 2. National Land Survey of Iceland, Stillholt 16–18, 300 Akranes, Iceland & Nordic Volcanological Center, Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland, Sturlugata 7, 102 Reykjavík, Iceland.
  • 3. Laboratoire d'Etudes en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiales, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (LEGOS – CNRS, UMR5566), Université de Toulouse, 31400 Toulouse, France
  • 4. Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland, Sturlugata 7, 102 Reykjavík, Iceland
  • 5. Icelandic Meteorological Office, Bústaðavegur 7- 9, 105 Reykjavík, Iceland



This repository contains the data used for the study of the slope instability of Tungnakvíslarjökull, Iceland, described in Lacroix et al. (submitted). Specifically, the repository contains three time series in Tungnakvíslarjökull:

  1. Time series of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from ASTER, 2000-2020.

  2. Time series of horizontal ground displacements, 1999-2019.

  3. Time series of earthquakes, 1995-2019.

Finally, we provide the map of the rate of elevation difference and the map of horizontal ground displacements for the whole period 2000-2019, as shown in Figure 1 of Lacroix et al. (submitted).

The data and methods used for the elaboration of this data repository are described in detail in Lacroix et al. (submitted). In this repository we also provide a short summary and overview of the data and methods used.


A total of 160 ASTER scenes were used to produce the time series of DEMs. A series of images from SPOT1, Landsat-7, ASTER and Landsat-8 was used in order to produce the horizontal ground displacements maps. The South-Iceland Lowlands (SIL) network (Jóndsdóttir et al., 2007) was obtained from Veðurstofan Íslands ( Table 1 provides an overview of these data.

Table1: Data used for the creation of this repository
Application Platforms Acquisition dates
DEM ASTER 160 scenes from 2000-10-16 to 2020-08-27.

Format for the date is YYYYMMDD

Horizontal ground displacement SPOT1 1987-08-05
  Landsat-7 1999-07-26, 2000-08-20, 2001-09-24, 2002-07-09
  ASTER 2003-08-04, 2004-09-18, 2007-08-15, 2011-08-10, 2013-07-24, 2014-08-18, 2016-08-07
  Landsat-8 2014-08-12, 2015-09-16, 2016-08-24, 2017-08-20, 2018-09-14, 2019-08-10
Seismicity SIL network 370491 events recorded between 1995-2019 in the Mýrdalsjökull (S-Iceland) area and surroundings


The DEMs were created using the Ames StereoPipeline (ASP, Shean et al., 2016) with the same setup as used in Brun et al., (2017). Each DEM was then co-registered to a lidar DEM acquired in 2010 (Jóhannesson et al., 2013), using the co-registration methods from Berthier et al. (2007), and adding an across-track fifth-degree polynomial correction (Gardelle et al., 2013). The stack of elevations obtained from the DEM time series was linearly fitted in order to produce the map of elevation difference (file name 20000101_20210101_30x30m_UTM27N_DHDT_Lacroixetal2022.tif) of the period 2000-2020.

The horizontal ground displacement maps were created using the offset tracking methodology described in Bontemps et al. (2018), consisting of: (1) pairwise image correlation using Mic-Mac (Rupnik et al., 2017), (2) masking of areas with low correlation coefficients (3) correction of co-registration bias by subtracting the mean values of the NS and EW displacement fields and (4) pixelwise fit of the horizontal ground displacements by least squares, using the time interval between measurements as weights and obtaining the full horizontal ground displacement for the analyzed period (file name 19990726_20200101_15x15m_UTM27N_HGD_Lacroixetal2022.tif)

The time series of earthquakes obtained from the SIL network was filtered, and 2089 earthquakes with depth <5 km and magnitude <1.7 were used in this study and data repository (file name 19950814_20181118_SILvedur_time_lon_lat_dep_mag.txt).


We thank Bryndís Brandsdóttir for providing the seismic data used in this repository. E.B. and P.L. acknowledge the support from the French Space Agency (CNES) through the TOSCA, PNTS, SWH and ISIS programs.

Dataset attribution

This dataset is licensed under a Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 International License.

Dataset Citation

Lacroix, P., Belart, J.M.C., Berthier, E., Sæmundsson, Þ., Jónsdóttir, K.: Data Repository: Mechanism of landslide induced by glacier-retreat on the Tungnakvíslarjökull area, Iceland. Dataset distributed on Zenodo: 10.5281/zenodo.6388069


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Additional details


  • Brun, F., Berthier, E., Wagnon, P., Kääb, A., & Treichler, D. (2017). A spatially resolved estimate of high mountain asia glacier mass balances from 2000 to 2016. Nature geoscience, 10 (9), 668–673.
  • Bontemps, N., Lacroix, P., & Doin, M.-P. (2018). Inversion of deformation fields time-series from optical images, and application to the long term kinematics of slow-moving landslides in peru. Remote Sensing of Environment, 210, 144–158.
  • Gardelle, J., Berthier, E., Arnaud, Y., & Kääb, A. (2013). Region-wide glacier mass balances over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya during 1999–2011. The Cryosphere, 7 (4), 1263–1286.
  • Lacroix, P., Belart, J.M.C., Berthier, E., Sæmundsson, Þ., Jónsdóttir, K.: Mechanism of landslide induced by glacier-retreat on the Tungnakvíslarjökull area, Iceland. Geophysical Research Letters, submitted.
  • Jóhannesson, T., Björnsson, H., Magnusson, E., Gudmundsson, S., Palsson, F., Sigurdsson, O., Throsteinsson, Th., Berthier, E. (2013). Ice-volume changes, bias estimation of mass-balance measurements and changes in subglacial lakes derived by lidar mapping of the surface of icelandic glaciers. Annals of Glaciology, 54 (63), 63–74.
  • Jónsdóttir, K., Tryggvason, A., Roberts, R., Lund, B., Soosalu, H., & Bövarsson, R. (2007). Habits of a glacier-covered volcano: seismicity patterns and velocity structure of Katla volcano, Iceland. Annals of Glaciology, 45 , 169–177.
  • Rupnik, E., Daakir, M., & Deseilligny, M. P. (2017). Micmac–a free, open-source solution for photogrammetry. Open Geospatial Data, Software and Standards, 2 (1), 1–9.
  • Shean, D. E., Alexandrov, O., Moratto, Z. M., Smith, B. E., Joughin, I. R., Porter, C., & Morin, P. (2016). An automated, open-source pipeline for mass production of digital elevation models (dems) from very-high-resolution commercial stereo satellite imagery. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 116 , 101–117.