Published February 26, 2022 | Version v2
Preprint Open

The Huanan market was the epicenter of SARS-CoV-2 emergence

  • 1. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
  • 2. Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA
  • 3. W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205, USA
  • 4. Bioinformatics and Systems Biology Graduate Program, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
  • 5. Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
  • 6. Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3, Canada
  • 7. Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
  • 8. Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, Department of Zoology, The Recanati-Kaplan Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX13 5QL, UK
  • 9. Department of Viroscience, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands
  • 10. Department of Biostatistics, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
  • 11. Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
  • 12. Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Transplantation, Rega Institute, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
  • 13. MRC-University of Glasgow Center for Virus Research, Glasgow, G61 1QH, UK
  • 14. Tulane University, School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, New Orleans, LA, 70112 USA
  • 15. Sydney Institute for Infectious Diseases, School of Life and Environmental Sciences and School of Medical Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
  • 16. Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, King's Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3FL, UK


Geographical clustering of the earliest known COVID-19 cases and the proximity of positive environmental samples to live-animal vendors suggest that the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan was the site of origin of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Now published in Science (



Files (29.2 MB)

Name Size Download all
29.2 MB Preview Download

Additional details