Published September 16, 2021 | Version v1
Taxonomic treatment Open

Centruroides catemacoensis Goodman & Prendini & Francke & Esposito 2021, sp. nov.

  • 1. Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York; Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History; Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability, California Academy of Sciences
  • 2. Arachnology Lab and Scorpion Systematics Research Group, Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History
  • 3. Colección Nacional de Arácnidos, Departamento de Zoología, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México


Centruroides catemacoensis, sp. nov.

Figures 2, 3, 5E, F, 8E, F, 11C, 12C, 17M, P, 18M, P, 19M, P, 20M, P, 21M, P, 22M, P, 23M, P, 24M, P, 25M, P, 30, 31, tables 1, 6, 10

TYPE MATERIAL: MEXICO: Veracruz: Município Catemaco: Holotype ♂ (CNAN T01424), 4 ♂ paratypes (CASENT 9073286, 9073287, 9073366, CNAN T01421), 4 ♀ paratypes (CASENT 9073309, 9073314, CNAN T01422, T01423), Estacion Biología Los Tuxtlas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), 18°34′54″N 95°04′54.6″W, 74–416 m, 17.vii–25.vii.2018, A.M. Goodman, J. Gorneau, and M.K. Lippey; paratype ♂ (CNAN T01420), Estacion Biología Los Tuxtlas, UNAM, Cerro El Vigia Reserva de la Biosfera Los Tuxtlas, 18°34′47.9″N 95°04′29.2″W, 421–429 m, 27. vii.2005, O.F. Francke, M. Cordóva, A. Jaimes, A. Valdez, and H. Montaño.

ETYMOLOGY: The species name refers to the town of Catemaco, nearby the type locality, in the state of Veracruz, Mexico.

DIAGNOSIS: Centruroides catemacoensis differs from the closely related species, C. berstoni, C. cuauhmapan, C. hamadryas, and C. rileyi as follows. The base coloration of C. catemacoensis varies from dark yellow to orange, with considerable infuscation on the pedipalps and metasoma whereas the base coloration of C. berstoni, C. cuauhmapan, and C. hamadryas is pale yellow and of C. rileyi, yellowish orange. The carapace posterosubmedian carinae are reduced or absent in C. catemacoensis (fig. 5E, F), absent in C. berstoni (fig. 6C, D), C. cuauhmapan (fig. 5C, D), and C. hamadryas (fig. 6A, B), and present in C. rileyi (fig. 5A, B). The pedipalps are longer, and the chela manus dorsoventrally compressed, in the male, whereas the manus is shorter and slenderer in the female of C. catemacoensis than the other species (fig. 11C). Additionally, the chela movable finger is 2.5–3× (male) or 2.5× (female) the length of the manus in C. catemacoensis (figs. 11, 12C, table 6) but 1.5–1.7× (male) or 1.3× (female) the length of the manus in C. berstoni (figs. 13, 14B, table 5), C. cuauhmapan (figs. 11, 12B, table 3), C. hamadryas (figs. 13, 14A, table 4), and C. rileyi (figs. 11, 12A, table 2). The pedipalp chela manus is two-thirds the length of the patella in C. catemacoensis (figs. 11, 12C, table 6), but half its length in C. berstoni (figs. 13, 14B, table 5), C. cuauhmapan (figs. 11, 12B, table 3), C. hamadryas (figs. 13, 14A, table 4), and C. rileyi (figs. 11, 12A table 2). The prodorsal carina is restricted to the distal half of the chela manus in C. catemacoensis (figs. 11, 12C), whereas it is complete in C. cuauhmapan (figs. 11, 12B), C. hamadryas (figs. 13, 14A), and C. rileyi (figs. 11, 12A) and absent in C. chanae (figs. 15, 16B) and C. yucatanensis (figs. 15, 16C). The first leg is less than 2× the length of the carapace in the male of C. catemacoensis but greater than 2× its length in C. cuauhmapan, C. hamadryas, and C. rileyi (table 10). The ventrosubmedian and ventrolateral carinae of sternite VII of the male are weakly developed in C. catemacoensis but well developed, granular in C. cuauhmapan and obsolete to absent in C. berstoni and C. rileyi. The metasoma of the male is greater than 3× the length of the mesosoma in C. cuauhmapan but less than 3× its length in C. berstoni, C. hamadryas, and C. rileyi (table 10). The ventrolateral and ventrosubmedian carinae of metasomal segments I–IV in the male are absent in C. catemacoensis (figs. 18, 19M), weakly developed, smooth in C. berstoni (figs. 18H, K, 19H, K, 21H, K, 22H, K), well developed in C. cuauhmapan (figs. 18G, J, 19G, J, 21G, J, 22G, J), weakly developed on segments I–III and absent on IV in C. hamadryas (figs. 18B, E, 19B, E), and vestigial, smooth in C. rileyi (figs. 18A, D, 19A, D). The metasomal carinae of the female are well developed, granular in C. catemacoensis (figs. 17–22P), but finely granular in C. berstoni (figs. 17–22K), C. cuauhmapan (figs. 17–22J), C. hamadryas (figs. 17–22E), and C. rileyi (figs. 17–22D).

DESCRIPTION: The following description is based on the holotype male, with differences among other material noted in the section on variation.

Coloration: Base color yellow to orange, with extensive infuscation, creating mottled or marbled pattern. Carapace with uniformly infuscate marbling, more densely infuscate medially. Pedipalp chela fingers and manus, dorsal and retrolateral intercarinal surfaces with moderately infuscate marbling; prolateral and ventral intercarinal surfaces mostly immaculate. Legs retrolateral surfaces with infuscate marbling; prolateral surfaces pale, immaculate. Tergites with unformly infuscate mottling, pale stripe medially, blackish spots submedially, and distinct, narrow bands laterally. Sternites moderately infuscate, with faintly infuscate triangular marking at posterior margin of III, fading to infuscate mottling on VII. Metasomal segments uniformly, faintly marbled; segment V and telson markedly infuscate, noticeably darker than preceding segments.

Carapace: Shape trapezoidal; anterior width four-fifths of posterior width (table 6); anteromedian sulcus moderately deep, narrow; posteromedian sulcus shallow anteriorly, deep, narrow posteriorly; carinae moderately developed, comprising small to medium-sized granules (fig. 5E).

Pedipalps: Orthobothriotaxic, Type A; femur dorsal trichobothria with α configuration; pedipalp chela fixed finger, trichobothrium db situated slightly distal to et. Femoral carinae moderately to strongly developed, serrate; retromedian carinae comprising spiniform granules; dorsal intercarinal surface moderately granular; prolateral intercarinal surface with series of large spiniform granules. Patella dorsomedian, retrodorsal, prodorsal, and proventral carinae moderately developed, serrate; retromedian carina strongly developed, serrate; retroventral carina incomplete, serrate; prolateral intercarinal surface with five or six large, subspiniform granules. Chela manus proventral carina moderately developed, comprising few rounded granules; other carinae weakly developed, granular. Fixed finger, median denticle row comprising eight oblique subrows, each flanked by pro- and retrolateral supernumerary denticles. Movable finger, median denticle row with short terminal row comprising four denticles preceded by eight oblique subrows, each flanked by pro- and retrolateral supernumerary denticles.

1 Sum of carapace, tergites I–VII, metasomal segments I–V, and telson; 2 distance between median ocelli; 3 sum of trochanter, femur, patella, and chela; 4 measured from base of condyle to tip of fixed finger; 5 sum of tergites I–VII; 6 sum of metasomal segments I–V and telson.

Legs: Leg I length 1.94× greater than carapace length (table 10). Telotarsi ventral surfaces densely covered with short setae; ungues markedly curved.

Pectines: Pectinal plate 1.9× wider than long; posterior margin distinctly rounded; pectinal tooth count 14/14 (♂) (fig. 8E, table 6).

Mesosoma: Tergites width similar to carapace posterior width; I and II slightly narrower (table 6). Pretergites surfaces smooth to finely granular. Posttergites surfaces weakly granular; I–VI with dorsomedian carinae vestigial, reduced to several small granules; VII surface weakly granular, dorsomedian carina vestigial, reduced to several small granules, dorsosubmedian and dorsolateral carinae finely serrate. Sternites III–VI, surfaces smooth; VII surface weakly granular, ventrolateral carinae serrate.

Metasoma: Metasoma length 2.83× mesosoma length (table 6). Segments longer than wide; increasing in length posteriorly, segment V 2× length of I; dorsolateral and dorsosubmedian carinae weakly serrate on segments I–III, other carinae absent or obsolete; intercarinal surfaces sparsely granular (figs. 17–22M).

Telson: Vesicle elongate, ovoid, length 1.5× width (table 6); ventral surface shallowly convex; ventromedian carina granular, terminating at subaculear tubercle; subaculear tubercle narrow and angular in lateral aspect, directed toward midpoint of aculeus. Aculeus angled ventrally at slightly less than 90° (fig. 25M).

Variation: Base coloration varies from light yellow to orange with considerable variation in infuscation of the carapace and mesosoma (figs. 30, 31A, B). Adult males and females differ as follows. The mesosoma is proportionally longer and slenderer, the metasoma up to 3× longer, with segment V markedly longer, and the telson more elongate, with the vesicle more rounded and bilobed posteriorly, in males (figs. 17–22M, table 6). The tegument is more densely infuscate, the pectinal plate is produced into a rounded lobe posteriorly, which is punctate and slightly infuscate, and the telson is shorter and narrower, with the vesicle surfaces less granular, in females (figs. 23–25P). The pectinal tooth count is similar in both sexes (fig. 8E, F, table 6).

DISTRIBUTION: Centruroides catemacoensis is endemic to the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve in the state of Veracruz, eastern Mexico. Most of the known material was collected in the vicinity of the Estación Biologica Los Tuxtlas, UNAM (fig. 3).

ECOLOGY: The localities at which C. catemacoensis has been recorded range in altitude from 74 to 493, in an area of tropical moist broadleaf forest, dominated by thorny palms, Astrocaryum mexicanum Leibm. (Arecaceae Berch and J. Presl,), and buttress trees including Siparuna andina Tul. (Sipuranaceae A. DC). and Vochysia guatemalensis Donn. Sm. (Vochysiaceae A. St. -Hil). This arboreal scorpion has been collected from 3 to 15 m above ground in the forest canopy, often in bromeliads, Aechmea bracteata Grisebach (Bromeliaceae Juss). A few individuals were collected in the leaf litter. The habitat and habitus are consistent with the arboreal, corticolous ecomorphotype (Prendini, 2001a).

MATERIAL EXAMINED: MEXICO: Veracruz: Município Catemaco: Estacion Biología Los Tuxtlas, UNAM, 18°35′05.6″N 95°04′29.9″W, 162 m,, C.R.B., in A. bracteata at 15 m, 2 ♂, 1 ♀ (CNAN SC3975), 25.i.1969, C.R.B., 15 m above ground in A. bracteata, 1 ♀, 1 juv. ♀ (CNAN SC3976), 22.v.1969, C.R.B., A. bracteata at 12 m, 1 juv. ♂ (CNAN SC3972), 14. vi.1969, C.R.B., in A. bracteata at 10 m, 1 ♂ (CNAN SC3974), 15.viii.1997, G. Pérez II, 1 ♂ (CNAN SC3971), 134 m, 18.iii.1998, D.E. González Manuel, habitación, 1 ♀ (CNAN SC3969), 162 m, 16.iv.1998, in leaf litter, 1 ♀, 2 juv. ♀ (CNAN SC3970), iii.2001, M. López, 15 m above ground in A. bracteata, 1 ♀ (CNAN SC3977), 134 m, 26.viii.2005. O.F. Francke, M. Córdova, A. Jaimes, A. Valdez, and H. Montaño, 1 ♂ (AMNH [LP 5231]), 18°34′54″N 95°04′54.6″W, 134 m, 19.vii.2002, J. Ponce and O.F. Francke, 1 ♀ (AMNH [LP 2070]), 74–416 m, 17.vii–25.vii.2018, A.M. Goodman, J. Gorneau, and M.K. Lippey, 2 ♂ (CASENT 9073270, 9073427), 2 juv. ♂ (CASENT 9073315, 9073409), 4 juv. ♀ (CASENT 9073408, 9073410, 9073426, 9073428); surroundings of Estacion Biología, Reserva de la Biosfera Los Tuxtlas, 18°30′03.5″N 95°04′29.5″W, 134–493 m, 26.viii.2005, O.F. Francke, M. Cordova, A. Jaimes, A. Valdez, H. Montaño, 2 ♀, 1 juv. ♀ (CNAN SC3973).


Published as part of Goodman, Aaron M., Prendini, Lorenzo, Francke, Oscar F. & Esposito, Lauren A., 2021, Systematic Revision Of The Arboreal Neotropical " Thorellii " Clade Of Centruroides Marx, 1890, Bark Scorpions (Buthidae C. L. Koch, 1837) With Descriptions Of Six New Species, pp. 1-93 in Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 2021 (452) on pages 15-22, DOI: 10.1206/0003-0090.452.1.1,


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