Work Flexibility and Workplace Training in Italy Before and After the Jobs Act Reform
This paper analyses the complex relationship between work flexibility strategies and workplace training at the firm level, thus filling a gap in the relative literature that only takes into account supply-side factors and fails to discriminate between on- and off- the job training. To achieve this purpose, we discuss the implications of two different theoretical frameworks grounding on human capital theory and systemic flexibility, respectively, and go on developing alternative hypotheses on the association between the presence of temporary and part-time workers at firm-level and training investments, both off-the-job and on-the-job. By using data on Italian firms, we get different results according to the type of non-standard contract and training. Part-time and temporary contracts carry out distinct functions with respect to off-the-job and on-the-job training, respectively. The former is more consistent with the human capital approach, whereas the latter is in line with the strategic management approach. These results are discussed in view of a structural labour market reform enacted by the Italian government in 2015, the so-called “Jobs Act”.