Published August 17, 2020 | Version Accepted pre-print
Journal article Open

Exploring tilting methods for typing under water

  • 1. Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
  • 2. Research Centre on Interactive Media, Smart Systems and Emerging Technologies (RISE), Nicosia 1011, Cyprus


Underwater environments are still providing significant challenges for diver communication and interaction. Smartphones and tablets have the potential to provide great assistance for divers under water and even allow them to utilize augmented and mixed reality, but the housing solutions limit their capabilities. In particular, interaction with them cannot harness a touch screen medium. This paper presents a novel way of providing textual input in underwater environments. The concept is utilizing orientation sensors allowing for tilting a smartphone to input textual information. Three different titling configurations of keyboards were implemented and evaluated on land and in a swimming pool in a user study that involved 17 healthy volunteers and assessed their performance in two different conditions reflecting two typical diving poses. Results clearly demonstrate the benefit of this technique and suggest more effective configurations. A following discussion derives general recommendations for implementing similar methods that use tilting to interact with devices under


This work has been partly supported by the project that has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 739578 (RISE – Call: H2020-WIDESPREAD-01-2016-2017-TeamingPhase2) and the Government of the Republic of Cyprus through the Directorate General for European Programmes, Coordination and Development.



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iMARECULTURE – Advanced VR, iMmersive serious games and Augmented REality as tools to raise awareness and access to European underwater CULTURal heritagE. 727153
European Commission
RISE – Research Center on Interactive Media, Smart System and Emerging Technologies 739578
European Commission