A MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION TO MONITOR THE HISTORICAL PAPER DYEING TECHNIQUES
The study aims to determine the type of technique used in dyeing old Arab paper (ca. 8th century A.D.) by examining a number of colored historical manuscripts and comparing them with modern samples by using a microscopic examination. Studying these historical references not only adds a new strategy to the identifica-tion of dyes and materials used in dyeing paper manuscripts under study, but also can help to preserve the colors by providing a better understanding of their composition, manufacture and use. SEM microscopy of archaeological dyed papers in different shades were evaluated and compared with the morphological struc-ture of known dyed samples were dyed in different techniques. The type of dyeing used in dyed papers was determined according to the results of surface morphology investigation. SEM images confirmed that there are dramatic differences between dyed paper by beating and dyed by dipping, whereas, the dye molecules linked on the outer surface of the fiber in the dipping method. On the other hand, in the beating method, fibers were affected dramatically and were destructive. This work proved that dipping was the method used in the dyeing of Arabic manuscripts.