Published March 31, 2020 | Version 1.0
Dataset Open

Sea-ice induced Southern Ocean subsurface warming and surface cooling in a warming climate: ROMS model data

  • 1. Environmental Physics, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland; Center for Climate Systems Modeling, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland; Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Program, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
  • 2. Environmental Physics, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland; Center for Climate Systems Modeling, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  • 3. Environmental Physics, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland

Description

Abstract:

This data set contains model output data from the regional ocean modelling system (ROMS) that was set up for the Southern Ocean (south of 24 °S; Haumann, 2016) to analyze the effects of changing surface freshwater and momentum fluxes on Southern Ocean water-mass changes over the period 1980 to 2011. All data is provided in NetCDF format. The data set contains 3 sets 40-year long model spin-up, control, and 3 perturbation simulations each. The sets differ by their model mean state to assess the effect of surface salinity biases on the results. One set of simulations are reference simulations where salinity is restored to the observed surface salinity during model spin-up, and the other two sets are simulations in which the restoring surface salinity has been altered by plus and minus 0.1 PSU, respectively. The control and perturbation simulations are 40-year extensions of the respective model spin-up simulations. In the perturbation simulations either the surface freshwater fluxes or momentum fluxes are instantaneously perturbed after the spin-up simulation to reflect the observation-derived changes in these surface fluxes and then held constant (at the perturbed level) for 40 years. They consist of sea-ice freshwater flux, glacial meltwater flux, and atmosphere-ocean momentum flux changes. Details on the model setup, forcing, and simulations can be obtained from the related research article by Haumann et al. (2020; https://doi.org/10.1029/2019AV000132).


Contacts:

F. Alexander Haumann, ORCID: 0000-0002-8218-977X. Email: alexander.haumann@gmail.com


License:

When using this data users must cite the original research article by Haumann et al. (2020) published in AGU Advances (https://doi.org/10.1029/2019AV000132). This model output data set is made available under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0) whose full text can be found at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/


Citations:

Haumann, F. A., Gruber, N., Münnich, M. (2020): Sea-ice Induced Southern Ocean Subsurface Warming and Surface Cooling in a Warming Climate. AGU Advances, 1, e2019AV000132. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019AV000132

Haumann, F. A., Gruber, N., Münnich, M. (2020): Sea-ice induced Southern Ocean subsurface warming and surface cooling in a warming climate: ROMS model data. (Version 1.0) [Data set]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3709154


Data processing:

The model data provided here has been processed for analysis and, due to storage constraints, only variables and averages used in the related research article (Haumann et al., 2020) are published here. Years refer to model years since initiation, i.e. the start of the spin-up simulation, and reach a maximum of 80 at the end of the control and perturbation experiments. Averages are either annual means over an indicated period ('yearly'), overall means over an indicated period ('mean'), or monthly climatologies over an indicated period ('clim'). 'Yearly' and 'Clim' values are provided either for surface fields or vertically integrated fields ('surf'). 'Mean' values are provided on the native vertical model grid as 3D fields. 'Yearly' zonal mean ('zonalmean') values have been first interpolated to from the native vertical model grid to a regular vertical z-level grid and then zonally averaged. All data has been stored in NetCDF format and compressed using level 1 deflation (https://www.unidata.ucar.edu/blogs/developer/entry/netcdf_compression). Full monthly mean model output from these simulations and the forcing fields can be obtained from the corresponding author upon request (alexander.haumann@gmail.com).


Standards:

Data files have been formatted as Network Common Data Form (NetCDF; https://www.unidata.ucar.edu/software/netcdf/) in Hierarchical Data Format, version 5 (https://portal.hdfgroup.org/display/knowledge/HDF5+Documentation)


Contents:

Data
- ROMS_SO_d025_grd.nc, ROMS grid file (Note: one row of ghost points on either side of the grid), compressed netcdf-file
- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_spinup, ROMS output from reference spin-up simulation, 4 netcdf-files:
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_spinup_clim.31-40.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 31 to 40, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_spinup_mean.31-40.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 31 to 40, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_spinup_yearly.31-40.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated annual mean fields for years 31 to 40, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_spinup_yearly.zlev.zonalmean.31-40.nc, vertically interpolated (z-level) and zonally averaged annual mean fields for years 31 to 40, netcdf-file
- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_spinup, ROMS output from minus 0.1 PSU sensitivity spin-up simulation, 4 netcdf-files:
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_spinup_clim.31-40.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 31 to 40, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_spinup_mean.31-40.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 31 to 40, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_spinup_yearly.31-40.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated annual mean fields for years 31 to 40, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_spinup_yearly.zlev.zonalmean.31-40.nc, vertically interpolated (z-level) and zonally averaged annual mean fields for years 31 to 40, netcdf-file
- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_spinup, ROMS output from plus 0.1 PSU sensitivity spin-up simulation, 4 netcdf-files:
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_spinup_clim.31-40.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 31 to 40, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_spinup_mean.31-40.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 31 to 40, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_spinup_yearly.31-40.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated annual mean fields for years 31 to 40, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_spinup_yearly.zlev.zonalmean.31-40.nc, vertically interpolated (z-level) and zonally averaged annual mean fields for years 31 to 40, netcdf-file
- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_ctrl, ROMS output from reference control simulation, 4 netcdf-files:
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_ctrl_clim.46-55.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_ctrl_clim.61-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_ctrl_mean.46-55.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_ctrl_mean.61-80.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_ctrl_yearly.41-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_ctrl_yearly.zlev.zonalmean.41-80.nc, vertically interpolated (z-level) and zonally averaged annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_ctrl, ROMS output from minus 0.1 PSU sensitivity control simulation, 4 netcdf-files:
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_ctrl_clim.46-55.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_ctrl_clim.61-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_ctrl_mean.46-55.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_ctrl_mean.61-80.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_ctrl_yearly.41-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_ctrl_yearly.zlev.zonalmean.41-80.nc, vertically interpolated (z-level) and zonally averaged annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_ctrl, ROMS output from plus 0.1 PSU sensitivity control simulation, 4 netcdf-files:
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_ctrl_clim.46-55.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_ctrl_clim.61-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_ctrl_mean.46-55.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_ctrl_mean.61-80.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_ctrl_yearly.41-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_ctrl_yearly.zlev.zonalmean.41-80.nc, vertically interpolated (z-level) and zonally averaged annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_seaice, ROMS output from reference sea-ice freshwater flux perturbation simulation, 4 netcdf-files:
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_seaice_clim.46-55.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_seaice_clim.61-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_seaice_mean.46-55.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_seaice_mean.61-80.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_seaice_yearly.41-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_seaice_yearly.zlev.zonalmean.41-80.nc, vertically interpolated (z-level) and zonally averaged annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_seaice, ROMS output from minus 0.1 PSU sensitivity sea-ice freshwater flux perturbation simulation, 4 netcdf-files:
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_seaice_clim.46-55.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_seaice_clim.61-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_seaice_mean.46-55.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_seaice_mean.61-80.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_seaice_yearly.41-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_seaice_yearly.zlev.zonalmean.41-80.nc, vertically interpolated (z-level) and zonally averaged annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_seaice, ROMS output from plus 0.1 PSU sensitivity sea-ice freshwater flux perturbation simulation, 4 netcdf-files:
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_seaice_clim.46-55.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_seaice_clim.61-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_seaice_mean.46-55.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_seaice_mean.61-80.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_seaice_yearly.41-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_seaice_yearly.zlev.zonalmean.41-80.nc, vertically interpolated (z-level) and zonally averaged annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_glacial, ROMS output from reference glacial meltwater flux perturbation simulation, 4 netcdf-files:
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_glacial_clim.46-55.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_glacial_clim.61-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_glacial_mean.46-55.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_glacial_mean.61-80.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_glacial_yearly.41-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_glacial_yearly.zlev.zonalmean.41-80.nc, vertically interpolated (z-level) and zonally averaged annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_glacial, ROMS output from minus 0.1 PSU sensitivity glacial meltwater flux perturbation simulation, 4 netcdf-files:
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_glacial_clim.46-55.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_glacial_clim.61-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_glacial_mean.46-55.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_glacial_mean.61-80.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_glacial_yearly.41-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_glacial_yearly.zlev.zonalmean.41-80.nc, vertically interpolated (z-level) and zonally averaged annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_glacial, ROMS output from plus 0.1 PSU sensitivity glacial meltwater flux perturbation simulation, 4 netcdf-files:
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_glacial_clim.46-55.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_glacial_clim.61-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_glacial_mean.46-55.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_glacial_mean.61-80.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_glacial_yearly.41-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_glacial_yearly.zlev.zonalmean.41-80.nc, vertically interpolated (z-level) and zonally averaged annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_momentum, ROMS output from reference atmopshere-ocean momentum flux perturbation simulation, 4 netcdf-files:
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_momentum_clim.46-55.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_momentum_clim.61-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_momentum_mean.46-55.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_momentum_mean.61-80.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_momentum_yearly.41-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_ref_momentum_yearly.zlev.zonalmean.41-80.nc, vertically interpolated (z-level) and zonally averaged annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_momentum, ROMS output from minus 0.1 PSU sensitivity atmopshere-ocean momentum flux perturbation simulation, 4 netcdf-files:
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_momentum_clim.46-55.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_momentum_clim.61-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_momentum_mean.46-55.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_momentum_mean.61-80.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_momentum_yearly.41-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_minus01_momentum_yearly.zlev.zonalmean.41-80.nc, vertically interpolated (z-level) and zonally averaged annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_momentum, ROMS output from plus 0.1 PSU sensitivity atmopshere-ocean momentum flux perturbation simulation, 4 netcdf-files:
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_momentum_clim.46-55.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_momentum_clim.61-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated climatological monthly mean fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_momentum_mean.46-55.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 46 to 55, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_momentum_mean.61-80.nc, 3D averaged fields for years 61 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_momentum_yearly.41-80.surf.nc, 2D surface or vertically integrated annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
  -- ROMS_SO_d025_plus01_momentum_yearly.zlev.zonalmean.41-80.nc, vertically interpolated (z-level) and zonally averaged annual mean fields for years 41 to 80, netcdf-file
 
File headers
- ROMS_SO_d025_grd:
    angle [radians]: angle between xi axis and east
    f [second-1]: Coriolis parameter at RHO-points
    h [meter]: Final bathymetry at RHO-points
    hraw [meter]: Working bathymetry at RHO-points
    lat_rho [degree_north]: latitude of RHO-points
    lat_psi [degree_north]: latitude of PSI-points
    lat_u [degree_north]: latitude of U-points
    lat_v [degree_north]: latitude of V-points
    lon_rho [degree_east]: longitude of RHO-points
    lon_psi [degree_east]: longitude of PSI-points
    lon_u [degree_east]: longitude of U-points
    lon_v [degree_east]: longitude of V-points
    mask_rho [-]: mask on RHO-points
    mask_u [-]: mask on U-points
    mask_v [-]: mask on V-points
    pm [meter-1]: curvilinear coordinate metric in XI
    pn [meter-1]: curvilinear coordinate metric in ETA
    spherical [char]: Grid type logical switch
- ROMS_SO_d025_*_clim.*.surf.nc, ROMS_SO_d025_*_yearly.*.surf.nc:
    time [days since 0000-01-01 00:00:00]: time
    lon [degree_east]: longitude
    lat [degree_north]: latitude
    zeta [meter]: averaged free-surface elevation
    temp [degree_celsius]: averaged potential temperature
    salt [psu]: averaged salinity
    rho [kilogram meter-3]: averaged density anomaly from model reference density of 1027 kilogram meter-3
    mld [meter]: averaged mixed layer depth
    n2 [seconds-2]: averaged buoyancy frequency (upper 100 m)
    n2temp [seconds-2]: averaged buoyancy frequency due to temperature (upper 100 m)
    n2salt [seconds-2]: averaged buoyancy frequency due to salinity (upper 100 m)
    heat_100 [10^18 J]: averaged ocean heat content (upper 100 m)
    heat_100_2000 [10^18 J]: averaged ocean heat content (between 100 m and 2000 m)" ;
- ROMS_SO_d025_*_mean.*.nc:
    time [days since 0000-01-01 00:00:00]: time
    lon [degree_east]: longitude
    lat [degree_north]: latitude
    zeta [meter]: averaged free-surface elevation
    temp [degree_celsius]: averaged potential temperature
    salt [psu]: averaged salinity
    rho [kilogram meter-3]: averaged density anomaly from model reference density of 1027 kilogram meter-3
- ROMS_SO_d025_*_yearly.zlev.zonalmean.*.nc:
    time [days since 0000-01-01 00:00:00]: time
    lat [degree_north]: latitude of RHO-points
    lat_v [degree_north]: latitude of V-points
    depth [meter]: depth of levels
    temp [degree_celsius]: averaged potential temperature
    salt [psu]: averaged salinity
    rho [kilogram meter-3]: averaged density anomaly from model reference density of 1027 kilogram meter-3
    moc [10^6 meter^3 second^-1]: averaged meridional overturning circulation on V-points
Missing values: missing values are filled as '-9.99e+20'.

Metadata
- README.txt, metadata, text format


References:

Haumann, F. A. (2016): Southern Ocean response to recent changes in surface freshwater fluxes. Doctoral Thesis. ETH Zurich. doi:10.3929/ethz-b-000166276.


Acknowledgments:

This work was supported by ETH Research Grant CH2-01 11-1 and by the SNSF grant numbers P2EZP2_175162 and P400P2_186681, as well as NSF’s SOCCOM Project under NSF Award No. PLR-1425989.

Notes

Funding: ETH Research Grant CH2-01 11-1; SNSF grant numbers P2EZP2_175162 and P400P2_186681; NSF Award No. PLR-1425989.

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Additional details

Related works

Cites
Journal article: 10.3929/ethz-b-000166276 (DOI)
Is supplement to
Journal article: 10.1029/2019AV000132 (DOI)

Funding

The role of Southern Ocean stratification in future ocean CO2 and heat uptake P2EZP2_175162
Swiss National Science Foundation
The role of Southern Ocean stratification in future ocean CO2 and heat uptake P400P2_186681
Swiss National Science Foundation

References

  • Haumann, F. A., Gruber, N., Münnich, M. (2020): Sea-ice Induced Southern Ocean Subsurface Warming and Surface Cooling in a Warming Climate. AGU Advances, 1, e2019AV000132. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019AV000132
  • Haumann, F. A. (2016): Southern Ocean response to recent changes in surface freshwater fluxes. Doctoral Thesis. ETH Zurich. doi:10.3929/ethz-b-000166276.