Soil liquefaction and induced damage to structures: a case study from the 2012 Emilia earthquake.
A database of masonry buildings located in a number of municipalities struck by the 2012 Emilia earthquake has been analyzed for this work. Post seismic survey was carried out by the Italian Department of Civil Protection soon after the earthquake. The database included information on building characteristics, level and extent of damage to structural and non-structural components. Additionally, data on ground conditions and the results of in-situ tests (CPT) were collected. The comparative analysis of observed damage has shown evidences of the impact of soil liquefaction on structures. It led to the formation of unusual crack patterns on the structure compared to the typical inertial damage. The correlation between structural damage and soil liquefaction was then investigated with reference to an exemplificative case of study in the hamlet of San Carlo (Sant’Agostino municipality). A simplified procedure for estimating liquefactioninduced building settlement was applied, obtaining an estimated settlement compatible with the observed damage.