Published March 11, 2019 | Version v1
Journal article Open

Thermally modified (TM) beech wood: compression properties, fracture toughness and cohesive law in mode II obtained from the three-point end-notched flexure (3ENF) test

  • 1. Innorenew CoE; Mendel University in Brno
  • 2. Universitat Politecnica de Valencia
  • 3. Mendel University in Brno


The fracture properties of thermally modified beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood (TMW) at 180° and 200°C were evaluated in mode II using the three-point end-notched flexure (3ENF) scheme assisted by threedimensional (3D) stereovision equipment for obtaining displacements and strains. The compliance-based beam method (CBBM) provided the strain energy release rates (GII) of TMW and cohesive laws for both native wood (W) and TMW. Based on the CBBM and equivalent crack length approach (ECLA), GII was obtained directly from the forcedeflection data. The thermal modification (TM) process reduced the compressive strength by 4.4% and increased the compressive elastic modulus by 38.3%, whereas GII was reduced substantially by 40.8% and 67.9% at TM180°C and TM200°C, respectively. TM also increased wood brittleness that was visible on the displacement slip reduction. The resulting mean cohesive models can be used for numerical analyses. The fracture properties of TMW have to be taken into consideration for constructional wood application, when cyclic loading may lead to microcracking and material fatigue.


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InnoRenew CoE – Renewable materials and healthy environments research and innovation centre of excellence 739574
European Commission