Published January 27, 2024 | Version v1
Dataset Open


  • 1. Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Government Dental College, Kottayam, Kerala, India.


Background and Rationale:Forensic radiology is an evolving integral branch of forensic medicine. The most challenging tasks for forensic dentists and anthropologists has been identification and determination of sex of unknown human skeletal remains. Morphological and morphometric analysis of course and relationship with adjacent structures of mandibular canal can be useful in determining gender. CBCT being very useful in forensic contexts offering several advantages for postmortem forensic imaging including good resolution for skeletal imaging, relatively low cost, portability, and simplicity.

Aim and objectives:To determine the sexual dimorphism of mandibular canal using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images.

Materials and Methods:Course of mandibular canal classified into types based on considerable distance between the mandibular canal and the root apexes of premolars and molars, A) Catenary, B) Progressive descending, C) Straight. Location of mandibular canal was evaluated in 4 different points. Comparison of length and width of mandibular canal, prevalence of anterior loop, bifid mandibular canal, accessory mental and mandibular canal among genders. Comparison of continuous variables such as distance, length and width of canal with gender and side was done using unpaired t-test. Comparison of categorical variables with gender and side was performed using Chi-square test. The level of significant was 5%.

Results:The prevalence of type of canal was highest in straight canals 53.9% followed by progressive descending and catenary canals 23.7% and 22.4% respectively. Measuring the length of canal showed statically significant result as mean length of IAC was 68.36 ± 5.24, 64.10 ± 3.18 in males and females respectively. Width and distance to adjacent structures had no significant result but dimensions were slightly lesser in females. Prevalence of anterior loop was found to be 57.9%.The most frequently observed type of bifid canal was retromolar42.9% followed by forward 28.6%, dental 19%and buccolingual 9.5%. There was no significant difference of assessing prevalence of anterior loop, accessory mental and mandibular foramen in relation to gender and side.

Conclusion:Sex determination becomes one of the first priorities in the process of identification by a forensic investigator in the case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters, crime investigations, and ethnic studies.Advanced cross-sectional imaging modalities especially CBCT is a suitable tool for observing anatomic characteristics of mandibular canal in forensic odontology. In the current study we found significant result on type of course and length of canal for gender determination. 




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