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From Family Solidarity to Social Classes: Urban Stratification in Angola (Luanda and Ondjiva)*

Rodrigues, Cristina Udelsmann

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  "description": "The analysis of recent social transformations in two Angolan cities \u2013 Luanda and Ondjiva \u2013\nhighlights the maintenance and strengthening of groups and social networks based on family\nties on the one hand and, on the other, the construction of new solidarities and identities\nderived from a traditional framework and recreated in the urban context in recent decades.\nFamily solidarity and reciprocity in the post-independence, post-war context in Luanda and\nOndjiva are the basis of social strategies, and the new forms of urban extended family have\nsupported individuals during rapid urban growth and socio-economic uncertainty in multiple\nways: providing economic support, a main point for social reference and security, among\nother things. In Luanda this organisation has generated an atomised social structure, and in\nOndjiva the urban social tissue that was completely erased during invasion and war relied for\nmany years on rural solidarity ties. However, with the gradual yet massive migration towards\nthe capital city, the return of displaced populations and the arrival of new migrants in\nOndjiva, newer, broader and more complex forms of solidarity and social identity have\nemerged in recent years. The increasing complexity, along with the decrease in the capacity to\nsustain reciprocity and dependency networks, tends to lead to the formation of clearer social\nstrata and the preponderance of new criteria. Both in Luanda and in Ondjiva, the urban\nreference \u2013 the integration, adoption and practice of an urban/modern lifestyle \u2013 together\nwith the consolidation of a market economy and economic stratification, generates new social\ndifferentiation and tends to produce different layers within the urban population. In both\nurban centres, urban/cosmopolitan references tend to assume a central role in the formation\nof social differentiation, producing new forms of social identity and social status.", 
  "license": "", 
  "creator": [
      "@id": "", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Rodrigues, Cristina Udelsmann"
  "headline": "From Family Solidarity to Social Classes: Urban Stratification in Angola (Luanda and Ondjiva)*", 
  "image": "", 
  "datePublished": "2007-06-01", 
  "url": "", 
  "@context": "", 
  "identifier": "", 
  "@id": "", 
  "@type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
  "name": "From Family Solidarity to Social Classes: Urban Stratification in Angola (Luanda and Ondjiva)*"
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