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Review of reference metrology for nanotechnology: significance, challenges, and solutions

Ukraintsev, Vladimir

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  "description": "Metrology and control of critical dimension (CD) are key to the\nsuccess of nanotechnology. Modern nanotechnology and nanometrology\nare largely based on knowledge developed during the last 10 to 20 years\nof semiconductor manufacturing. Semiconductor CD metrology entered\nthe nanotechnology age in the late 1990s. Work on 130-nm- and 90-\nnm-node technologies led to the conclusion that precision alone is an\ninsufficient metric for the quality assessment of metrology. Other components\nof measurement uncertainty (MU) must also be considered: 1. sample-\nto-sample measurement bias variation, 2. sampling uncertainty, and\n3. sample variation induced by the probe-sample interaction. The first\none (sample-dependent systematic error) is common for indirect and\nmodel-based CD metrologies such as top-down and cross-sectional scanning\nelectron microscopy (SEM) and optical scatterometry (OCD). Unless\nspecial measures are taken, bias variation of CDSEM and OCD could\nexceed several nanometers. Variation of bias and therefore MU can be\nassessed only if reference metrology (RM) is employed. The choice of\nRM tools is very limited. The CD atomic force microscope (AFM) is one\nof a few available RM tools. The CDAFM provides subnanometer MU\nfor a number of nanometrology applications. Significant challenges of\nCDAFM remain, such as the following: 1. the finite dimensions of the\nprobe are limiting characterization of narrow high-aspect spaces, 2. the\nflexibility of the probe complicates positioning control, 3. the probe\napex sharpness limits 3D AFM resolution, 4. the lifetime of atomically\nsharp probes is too short, and 5. adsorbates change properties and dimensions\nof nanometer-sized objects considerably. We believe that solutions\nfor the problems exist; therefore, we will discuss the role of RM in nanometrology,\ncurrent RM choices, and the challenges of CDAFM as well as\nsuggest some potential solutions. \n\u00a9 2012 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation\nEngineers (SPIE). [DOI: 10.1117/1.JMM.11.1.XXXXXX]\nSubject terms: accuracy; reference metrology; critical dimension; nanometrology;\nbias; critical dimension scanning electron microscope; critical dimension atomic\nforce microscope; scatterometry; relative accuracy; absolute accuracy.\nPaper 11109SSP received Aug. 5, 2011; revised manuscript received Oct. 18,\n2011; accepted for publication Oct. 26, 2011.", 
  "license": "", 
  "creator": [
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Ukraintsev, Vladimir"
  "headline": "Review of reference metrology for nanotechnology: significance, challenges, and solutions", 
  "image": "", 
  "datePublished": "2012-02-27", 
  "url": "", 
  "@context": "", 
  "identifier": "", 
  "@id": "", 
  "@type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
  "name": "Review of reference metrology for nanotechnology: significance, challenges, and solutions"
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