Journal article Open Access

On heat pumps in smart grids: A review

Fischer, David; Madani, Hatef

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  "DOI": "10.1016/j.rser.2016.11.182", 
  "author": [
      "family": "Fischer, David"
      "family": "Madani, Hatef"
  "issued": {
    "date-parts": [
  "abstract": "This paper investigates heat pump systems in smart grids, focussing on fields of application and control approaches that have emerged in academic literature. Based on a review of published literature technical aspects of heat pump flexibility, fields of application and control approaches are structured and discussed. Three main categories of applications using heat pumps in a smart grid context have been identified: First stable and economic operation of power grids, second the integration of renewable energy sources and third operation under variable electricity prices. In all fields heat pumps - when controlled in an appropriate manner - can help easing the transition to a decentralized energy system accompanied by a higher share of prosumers and renewable energy sources. Predictive controls are successfully used in the majority of studies, often assuming idealized conditions. Topics for future research have been identified including: a transfer of control approaches from simulation to the field, a detailed techno-economic analysis of heat pump systems under smart grid operation, and the design of  heat pump systems in order to increase flexibility are among the future research topics  uggested.", 
  "title": "On heat pumps in smart grids: A review", 
  "type": "article-journal", 
  "id": "895978"
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