Journal article Open Access

Bioremediation of aflatoxin B1-contaminated maize by king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii)

Maria Teresa Branà, Maria Teresa Cimmarusti, Miriam Haidukowski, Antonio Francesco Logrieco , Claudio Altomare

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    <subfield code="a">Bioremediation of aflatoxin B1-contaminated maize by king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii)</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">Integrated and innovative key actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chain</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;Aflatoxin B1 (AFB&lt;sub&gt;1&lt;/sub&gt;) is the most harmful mycotoxin that occurs as natural contaminant of agricultural commodities, particularly maize. Practical solutions for detoxification of contaminated staples and reduction of agricultural wastes are scarce. We investigated the capability of the white-rot and edible fungus &lt;em&gt;Plerotus eryngii&lt;/em&gt; (king oyster mushroom) to degrade AFB&lt;sub&gt;1&lt;/sub&gt; both &lt;em&gt;in vitro&lt;/em&gt; and in a laboratory-scale mushroom cultivation, using a substrate similar to that routinely used in mushroom farms. In malt extract broth, degradation of AFB&lt;sub&gt;1&lt;/sub&gt; (500 ng/mL) by nine isolates of &lt;em&gt;P&lt;/em&gt;. &lt;em&gt;eryngii&lt;/em&gt; ranged from 81 to 99% after 10 days growth, and reached 100% for all isolates after 30 days. The growth of &lt;em&gt;P&lt;/em&gt;. &lt;em&gt;eryngii&lt;/em&gt; on solid medium (malt extract-agar, MEA) was significantly reduced at concentrations of AFB&lt;sub&gt;1&lt;/sub&gt; 500 ng/mL or higher. However, the addition of 5% wheat straw to the culture medium increased the tolerance of &lt;em&gt;P&lt;/em&gt;. &lt;em&gt;eryngii&lt;/em&gt; to AFB&lt;sub&gt;1&lt;/sub&gt; and no inhibition was observed at a AFB&lt;sub&gt;1&lt;/sub&gt; content of 500 ng/mL; degradation of AFB&lt;sub&gt;1&lt;/sub&gt; in MEA supplemented with 5% wheat straw and 2.5% (w/v) maize flour was 71–94% after 30 days of growth. Further, AFB&lt;sub&gt;1&lt;/sub&gt; degradation by &lt;em&gt;P&lt;/em&gt;. &lt;em&gt;eryngii&lt;/em&gt; strain ITEM 13681 was tested in a laboratory-scale mushroom cultivation. The mushroom growth medium contained 25% (w/w) of maize spiked with AFB&lt;sub&gt;1&lt;/sub&gt; to the final content of 128 μg/kg. &lt;em&gt;Pleurotus eryngii&lt;/em&gt; degraded up to 86% of the AFB&lt;sub&gt;1&lt;/sub&gt; in 28 days, with no significant reduction of either biological efficiency or mushroom yield. Neither the biomass produced on the mushroom substrate nor the mature basidiocarps contained detectable levels of AFB&lt;sub&gt;1&lt;/sub&gt; or its metabolite aflatoxicol, thus ruling out the translocation of these toxins through the fungal thallus. These findings make a contribution towards the development of a novel technology for remediation of AFB&lt;sub&gt;1&lt;/sub&gt;- contaminated corn through the exploitation of the degradative capability of &lt;em&gt;P&lt;/em&gt;. &lt;em&gt;eryngii&lt;/em&gt; and its bioconversion into high nutritional value material intended for feed production.&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">10.1371/journal.pone.0182574</subfield>
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