Journal article Open Access

TRANSLATION, VALIDATION AND PSYCHOMETRIC EVALUATION OF PROBLEM AREAS IN DIABETES QUESTIONNAIRE: THE URDU VERSION

Sajjad Haider, Marvi Baloch, Qaiser Iqbal and Fahad Saleem

Objective: The study aims to translate and examine the psychometric properties of the Urdu version of Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) questionnaire among Type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM) in Quetta, Pakistan. Method: A standard ‘‘forward–backward’’ procedure of translation was used to translate the English version of PAID into Urdu (official language of Pakistan). The translated version was then validated on a convenience sample of 120 T2DM patients attending a public hospital in Quetta, Pakistan. Test-retest was carried out in order to evaluate the stability of test over time using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. Reliability of questionnaire was tested using Cronbach alpha coefficient. Collected data were analysed for their consistency and validity using KMO confirmatory factor analysis. Results: Adopting the recommended scoring method, PAID score was 36.25 indicating moderate diabetesrelated issues in our study respondents. The instrument demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.838). The test–retest reliability value was 0.820. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy for the factor analysis was 0.834, an index of which Kaiser described as “meritorious” for factorial analyses. Factor analysis extracted 2 factors with cumulative explained variance of 40%. The oblique rotation of items showed strong loading (> 0.60) for all of the study items. The Structure and Pattern Matrix showed that item all questions were clearly factorized into construct confirming our finding not to exclude any item in the original questionnaire. Conclusion: Results from this translation and validation study conclude that the Urdu version of the PAID is a reliable and valid measure of problem faced by T2DM patients and therefore a valid tool for the advancement of person-centered healthcare.

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