Dataset Open Access
PENETRATION EXPERIMENTS AND 1D SIMULATIONS OF AIR RIFLE BB 4.5 MM STEEL SPHERE AND GAMO HUNTER 4.5 MM IMPACTING 10% GELATINE
Keywords: Penetration, experiments, simulations, gelatine, air rifle, projectiles, high-speed camera, chronograph, BB 4.5 mm, steel sphere, Gamo Hunter 4.5 mm, penetration depth, dynamic cavity size, drag force, shear force, shear rate effect
Abstract. Gelatine of 10% concentration is often used as projectile target to simulate soft tissues of animals and humans. The 10% gelatine used in the tests fulfills the FBI standard protocol for penetration depth of BB 4.5 mm steel sphere impacting with 180 m/s. Here, experiments were conducted with BB 4.5 mm steel sphere and diabolo Gamo Hunter 4.5 mm pellets with varying impact velocity. The impact velocity was measured by chronograph. The deceleration and dynamic cavity size was studied by using high-speed camera with 10000 frames per second. Final penetration depth was manually measured. A 1D simulation model, considering the retardation force generated by drag and shear, was used to predict penetration depth in both 10% and 20% gelatine for projectiles with spherical nose shape. From the simulations it becomes evident that the drag force and static shear force alone can’t explain the total retardation force to achieve the expected penetration depth. In the literature for experiments conducted on both 10% and 20% gelatine, there is confirmation that projectiles impacting with velocity above 100 m/s, the shear strength in the gelatine is increased by a factor 40 and 70 times for 10% and 20% gelatine, respectively. This concept was successfully used in the simulations by introducing a shear rate dependent shear force model which increases the static shear force of 10% and 20% gelatine. All experimental results, including high speed films and python simulation code of gelatine penetration, are publicly available, see , .
Penetration experiments of air rifle projectiles with caliber 6.35 mm and different nose shapes impacting 10% gelatinE
Keywords: Penetration, experiments, gelatine, air rifle, projectiles, high speed camera, chronograph, caliber 6.35 mm, H&N pellets, penetration depth, dynamic cavity size
Abstract. Air rifles in caliber 6.35 mm and more than 10 J in kinetic energy at impact can have a significant effect on soft tissues of animals and humans. To study the effect, experimental penetration studies have been conducted by using test specimens made of 10% gelatine substitute. The 10% gelatine used in the tests fulfilled the FBI standard protocol for penetration depth of 4.5 mm BB steel sphere impacting with 180 m/s. The deceleration, penetration depth, and dynamic penetration cavity size for the projectiles with different nose shapes impacting gelatine 10% have been studied. The impact velocity was measured by using a chronograph and the initial kinetic energy before impact of the projectiles was up to 84 J (330 m/s). The deceleration and dynamic cavity size was studied by using high-speed camera with 10000 frames per second. Final penetration depth was manually measured. The nose and projectile shape influenced the dynamic cavity size and final penetration depth in the gelatine to a large extent. All experimental results, including high speed films and python simulation code of gelatine penetration, are publicly available, see .
Any results used from this open access data shall be cited to paper 1 and paper 2, the papers are found in the proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Shock & Impact Loads on Structures, 30-31 March 2023, Singapore.
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|Data volume||55.8 GB||55.8 GB|