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Hourly versus annually matched renewable supply for electrolytic hydrogen

Zeyen, Elisabeth; Riepin, Iegor; Brown, Tom

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  <identifier identifierType="DOI">10.5281/zenodo.7457441</identifier>
      <creatorName>Zeyen, Elisabeth</creatorName>
      <nameIdentifier nameIdentifierScheme="ORCID" schemeURI="">0000-0002-7262-3296</nameIdentifier>
      <affiliation>Technical University of Berlin (TUB)</affiliation>
      <creatorName>Riepin, Iegor</creatorName>
      <nameIdentifier nameIdentifierScheme="ORCID" schemeURI="">0000-0001-6378-4904</nameIdentifier>
      <affiliation>Technical University of Berlin (TUB)</affiliation>
      <creatorName>Brown, Tom</creatorName>
      <nameIdentifier nameIdentifierScheme="ORCID" schemeURI="">0000-0001-5898-1911</nameIdentifier>
      <affiliation>Technical University of Berlin (TUB)</affiliation>
    <title>Hourly versus annually matched renewable supply for electrolytic hydrogen</title>
    <subject>green hydrogen</subject>
    <date dateType="Issued">2022-12-19</date>
  <resourceType resourceTypeGeneral="Report"/>
    <alternateIdentifier alternateIdentifierType="url"></alternateIdentifier>
    <relatedIdentifier relatedIdentifierType="DOI" relationType="IsVersionOf">10.5281/zenodo.7457440</relatedIdentifier>
    <rights rightsURI="">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</rights>
    <rights rightsURI="info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess">Open Access</rights>
    <description descriptionType="Abstract">&lt;p&gt;Electrolytic hydrogen produced using renewable electricity can help lower carbon dioxide emissions in sectors where&lt;br&gt;
feedstocks, reducing agents, dense fuels or high temperatures are required. Several standards are being discussed to&lt;br&gt;
certify that the grid electricity used is renewable. The standards vary in how strictly they match the renewable generation&lt;br&gt;
to the electrolyser demand in time and space. In this paper, we compare electricity procurement strategies to meet a&lt;br&gt;
constant hydrogen demand in a computer model for selected European countries in 2025 and 2030. We compare a&lt;br&gt;
case where no additional renewable generators are procured with cases where the electrolyser demand is matched to&lt;br&gt;
additional supply either on an annual, monthly or an hourly basis. We show that local additionality is required to&lt;br&gt;
guarantee low emissions. If no storage is available to buffer the hydrogen, the electrolyser must run at full capacity&lt;br&gt;
at all times. For the annually matched case, constant operation means using fossil-fuelled generation from the grid&lt;br&gt;
for some hours that results in higher emissions and increased electricity prices compared to the case without hydrogen&lt;br&gt;
demand. In the hourly matched case, emissions and prices do not increase, but baseload operation results in high costs&lt;br&gt;
for providing constant supply if only wind, solar and batteries are available. Buffering the hydrogen with storage, either&lt;br&gt;
in steel tanks or underground caverns, reduces the cost penalty of hourly versus annual matching. Hydrogen production&lt;br&gt;
with annual matching can reduce system emissions if the electrolysers operate flexibly or coal is phased out and the&lt;br&gt;
renewable generation share is above 80%. The largest emission reduction is achieved with hourly matching when surplus&lt;br&gt;
electricity generation can be sold to the grid.&lt;/p&gt;</description>
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