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Hourly versus annually matched renewable supply for electrolytic hydrogen

Zeyen, Elisabeth; Riepin, Iegor; Brown, Tom

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  "publisher": "Zenodo", 
  "DOI": "10.5281/zenodo.7457441", 
  "language": "eng", 
  "title": "Hourly versus annually matched renewable supply for electrolytic hydrogen", 
  "issued": {
    "date-parts": [
  "abstract": "<p>Electrolytic hydrogen produced using renewable electricity can help lower carbon dioxide emissions in sectors where<br>\nfeedstocks, reducing agents, dense fuels or high temperatures are required. Several standards are being discussed to<br>\ncertify that the grid electricity used is renewable. The standards vary in how strictly they match the renewable generation<br>\nto the electrolyser demand in time and space. In this paper, we compare electricity procurement strategies to meet a<br>\nconstant hydrogen demand in a computer model for selected European countries in 2025 and 2030. We compare a<br>\ncase where no additional renewable generators are procured with cases where the electrolyser demand is matched to<br>\nadditional supply either on an annual, monthly or an hourly basis. We show that local additionality is required to<br>\nguarantee low emissions. If no storage is available to buffer the hydrogen, the electrolyser must run at full capacity<br>\nat all times. For the annually matched case, constant operation means using fossil-fuelled generation from the grid<br>\nfor some hours that results in higher emissions and increased electricity prices compared to the case without hydrogen<br>\ndemand. In the hourly matched case, emissions and prices do not increase, but baseload operation results in high costs<br>\nfor providing constant supply if only wind, solar and batteries are available. Buffering the hydrogen with storage, either<br>\nin steel tanks or underground caverns, reduces the cost penalty of hourly versus annual matching. Hydrogen production<br>\nwith annual matching can reduce system emissions if the electrolysers operate flexibly or coal is phased out and the<br>\nrenewable generation share is above 80%. The largest emission reduction is achieved with hourly matching when surplus<br>\nelectricity generation can be sold to the grid.</p>", 
  "author": [
      "family": "Zeyen, Elisabeth"
      "family": "Riepin, Iegor"
      "family": "Brown, Tom"
  "version": "0.1", 
  "type": "article", 
  "id": "7457441"
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