Journal article Open Access

Onshore Buried Steel Fuel Pipelines at Fault Crossings: A Review of Critical Analysis and Design Aspects

Melissianos E. Vasileios

Onshore buried steel pipeline infrastructure is a critical component of the fuel 6 supply system. Pipeline failure due to seismic actions is socially, environmentally, and 7 economically unacceptable and thus the design of pipelines at geohazard areas, such as fault 8 crossings, remains a hot topic for the pipeline community. There is an intense research effort 9 on the evaluation of the pipeline mechanical behavior and the strength verification at fault 10 crossings. Still, some aspects need in-depth consideration concerning practical applications. A 11 state-of-the-art review is presented on three critical analysis and design aspects, namely the 12 calculation of the design fault displacement via deterministic and probabilistic methods, the 13 effect of numerical modeling parameters such as soil spring properties, and the alternative pipe 14 protection measures in terms of availability, efficiency, and selection process. The critical 15 review offers a thorough insight on what is available and how to employ it in design, assisting 16 engineers and pipe operators in improving pipe safety.

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