Dataset Open Access

Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Dataset of a Walnut

Alexander Meaney

Dublin Core Export

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
<oai_dc:dc xmlns:dc="" xmlns:oai_dc="" xmlns:xsi="" xsi:schemaLocation="">
  <dc:creator>Alexander Meaney</dc:creator>

This dataset is a collection of X-ray projection images of a walnut imaged in a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanner. The dataset also includes a metadata file, specifying the scan geometry and other important scan parameters.



Sample Information

The sample is a walnut in its shell. For the scanning process double-sided tape was used to attach the sample to a plastic tube placed into the rotation stage.


The measurements were acquired using a cone-beam computed tomography scanner designed and constructed in-house in the Industrial Mathematics Computed Tomography Laboratory at the University of Helsinki. The scanner consists of a molybdenum target X-ray tube (Oxford Instruments XTF5011), a motorized rotation stage (Thorlabs CR1-Z7), and a 12-bit, 2240x2368 pixel, energy-integrating flat panel detector (Hamatsu Photonics C7942CA-22).

Scan Settings

721 X-ray projections were acquired using an angle increment of 0.5 degrees. The X-ray source voltage and tube current were set at 40 kV and 1 mA, respectively. The exposure time of the flat panel detector was set to 1000 ms.

Data Post-Processing

Two correction images were acquired before scanning the sample. A dark current image was created by averaging 100 images taken with the X-ray source off. A flat-field image was created by averaging 100 images taken with the X-ray source switched on with no sample placed in the scanner. After the scan, dark current and flat-field corrections were applied to each projection image using the Hamamatsu HiPic imaging software version 9.3.

Data Format

The X-ray projections are stored in .tif format. The metadata is contained in .txt file with formatting that is both human-readable and machine-readable.


Due to a slightly misaligned center of rotation in the scanner, the CT reconstructions can appear blurry. It was empirically observed that this problem can be compensated for quite well by shifting each projection left by 5 pixels, using circular boundary conditions, before performing any other operations on the projections.


Research Group

This dataset was produced by the Inverse Problems research group at the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of Helsinki, Finland:


Additional Links

This dataset was originally created as part of a tutorial on working with measured X-ray data in computed tomography. A video tutorial on the measurement process can be found on the Inverse Problems Channel on YouTube at

To get started with the data, we recommend looking at the HelTomo toolbox, specifically created for working with CBCT data collected in the Industrial Mathematics Computed Tomography Laboratory, and available at

Please note that this is a an entirely separate dataset from the Walnut dataset accessible at, although both datasets have been created by the same research group.


Contact Details

For more information or guidance in using these datasets, please contact alexander.meaney [at]</dc:description>
  <dc:subject>Computed Tomography</dc:subject>
  <dc:subject>Cone-Beam Computed Tomography</dc:subject>
  <dc:subject>X-ray Imaging</dc:subject>
  <dc:title>Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Dataset of a Walnut</dc:title>
All versions This version
Views 781430
Downloads 2,0591,863
Data volume 1.5 TB988.6 GB
Unique views 663359
Unique downloads 322244


Cite as