Journal article Open Access
Gouri Jayachandran M
Vesicular drug delivery systems are promising agents with diverse applications in pharmaceuticals, cosmeceuticals and cosmetics. Bilosomes are bilayered vesicles of non-ionic surfactants and bile salts which are similar to niosomes. Bile salts are endogenous surfactants which act as a double-edged sword by increasing the aqueous solubility and permeability of active pharmaceutical ingredient. These vesicular structures increase the solubility of lipophilic drugs and increase the stability of the formulation in the gastrointestinal tract. Bilosomes are ultradeformable flexible structures which increases the stratum corneum permeability. Thus these have applications in both oral and transdermal drug delivery. These vesicles are utilised for topical drug delivery like ocular and intranasal drug delivery. In addition, bile salt integrated nanomedicines like probilosomes, surface engineered bilosomes and non-oral bilosomes have been surveyed. Tremendous research in the last decade has made bilosomes a potential carrier system. The extensive search has been presented related to the formulation and characterisation of bilosomes. Bilosomal systems have profound application in biological therapeutics and vaccine delivery. This review offers a comprehensive and informative data focusing on the great potential of bile acid and their salts for therapeutic application. In conclusion, bilosomes are superior to other conventional vesicular carriers (liposome and niosome) with regards to the stability, low toxicity and bioavailability.
Key words: Vesicular drug delivery system, bilosome, endogenous surfactants, aqueous solubility, permeability, ultradeformable, nanomedicines, biological therapeutics, vaccine delivery, bioavailability