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Criminalisation of solidarity. Whether activists who help forced migrants in the borderland can be penalised for their actions?

Klaus Witold

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    <subfield code="x">Z. Ćwiąkalski In: W. Wróbel, A. Zoll (eds.) (2017). Kodeks karny. Część szczególna. Vol. II. Part II. Komentarz [Criminal Code: Special Part. Volume II. Part II. Commentary]. Warsaw: Wolters Kluwer, LEX.</subfield>
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    <subfield code="x">A. Lach In: V. Konarska-Wrzosek (ed.) (2020). Kodeks karny. Komentarz [Criminal Code: Commentary]. Warsaw: Wolters Kluwer.</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;Since early August 2021, when the humanitarian crisis began to unfold on the Polish-Belarusian border, the&amp;nbsp;key actors who provide real help to migrants in borderland forests are activists and local residents. The role&amp;nbsp;of the latter cannot be overestimated, especially when they live and act in a state of emergency zone to which&amp;nbsp;no one else has access. This assistance has been met with both great appreciation from one &amp;ndash; large &amp;ndash; part of&amp;nbsp;society and with condemnation from another. Some of those who condemn it include public officials (both&amp;nbsp;members of the Border Guard and other law enforcement agencies) who threaten activists rescuing people&amp;nbsp;in border area with criminal prosecution. The two legal provisions that they most often refer to are: assistance&amp;nbsp;in facilitating illegal stay in Poland (Art. 264a &amp;sect; 1 of the Polish Criminal Code &amp;ndash; hereafter PCC) and&amp;nbsp;assistance in organising illegal border crossings (Art. 264a &amp;sect; 2 PCC). In this analysis, I would like to discuss&amp;nbsp;these regulations from the point of view of whether they permit punishment for granting humanitarian aid.&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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