Book section Open Access

Criminalisation of solidarity. Whether activists who help forced migrants in the borderland can be penalised for their actions?

Klaus Witold

JSON Export

  "files": [
      "links": {
        "self": ""
      "checksum": "md5:687511f2ff262497d48066a86cb1f54e", 
      "bucket": "d901ae5f-206d-48d7-92bb-1d901f7514fb", 
      "key": "klaus_10.5281_zenodo.6595623.pdf", 
      "type": "pdf", 
      "size": 172091
  "owners": [
  "doi": "10.5281/zenodo.6595623", 
  "stats": {
    "version_unique_downloads": 25.0, 
    "unique_views": 27.0, 
    "views": 27.0, 
    "version_views": 27.0, 
    "unique_downloads": 25.0, 
    "version_unique_views": 27.0, 
    "volume": 4474366.0, 
    "version_downloads": 26.0, 
    "downloads": 26.0, 
    "version_volume": 4474366.0
  "links": {
    "doi": "", 
    "conceptdoi": "", 
    "bucket": "", 
    "conceptbadge": "", 
    "html": "", 
    "latest_html": "", 
    "badge": "", 
    "latest": ""
  "conceptdoi": "10.5281/zenodo.6595622", 
  "created": "2022-08-11T18:44:53.140085+00:00", 
  "updated": "2022-08-12T08:47:29.244887+00:00", 
  "conceptrecid": "6595622", 
  "revision": 2, 
  "id": 6595623, 
  "metadata": {
    "access_right_category": "success", 
    "part_of": {
      "pages": "30-32", 
      "title": "Beyond the law. Legal assessment of the Polish state's activities in response to the humanitarian crisis on the Polish-Belarusian border"
    "doi": "10.5281/zenodo.6595623", 
    "description": "<p>Since early August 2021, when the humanitarian crisis began to unfold on the Polish-Belarusian border, the&nbsp;key actors who provide real help to migrants in borderland forests are activists and local residents. The role&nbsp;of the latter cannot be overestimated, especially when they live and act in a state of emergency zone to which&nbsp;no one else has access. This assistance has been met with both great appreciation from one &ndash; large &ndash; part of&nbsp;society and with condemnation from another. Some of those who condemn it include public officials (both&nbsp;members of the Border Guard and other law enforcement agencies) who threaten activists rescuing people&nbsp;in border area with criminal prosecution. The two legal provisions that they most often refer to are: assistance&nbsp;in facilitating illegal stay in Poland (Art. 264a &sect; 1 of the Polish Criminal Code &ndash; hereafter PCC) and&nbsp;assistance in organising illegal border crossings (Art. 264a &sect; 2 PCC). In this analysis, I would like to discuss&nbsp;these regulations from the point of view of whether they permit punishment for granting humanitarian aid.</p>", 
    "license": {
      "id": "CC-BY-4.0"
    "title": "Criminalisation of solidarity. Whether activists who help forced migrants in the borderland can be penalised for their actions?", 
    "relations": {
      "version": [
          "count": 1, 
          "index": 0, 
          "parent": {
            "pid_type": "recid", 
            "pid_value": "6595622"
          "is_last": true, 
          "last_child": {
            "pid_type": "recid", 
            "pid_value": "6595623"
    "imprint": {
      "publisher": "Institute of Law Studies Polish Academy of Sciences", 
      "place": "Warsaw", 
      "isbn": "978-83-66300-68-2"
    "references": [
      "Z. \u0106wi\u0105kalski In: W. Wr\u00f3bel, A. Zoll (eds.) (2017). Kodeks karny. Cz\u0119\u015b\u0107 szczeg\u00f3lna. Vol. II. Part II. Komentarz [Criminal Code: Special Part. Volume II. Part II. Commentary]. Warsaw: Wolters Kluwer, LEX.", 
      "A. Lach In: V. Konarska-Wrzosek (ed.) (2020). Kodeks karny. Komentarz [Criminal Code: Commentary]. Warsaw: Wolters Kluwer."
    "publication_date": "2022-08-30", 
    "creators": [
        "affiliation": "ILS PAS", 
        "name": "Klaus Witold"
    "access_right": "open", 
    "resource_type": {
      "subtype": "section", 
      "type": "publication", 
      "title": "Book section"
    "related_identifiers": [
        "scheme": "doi", 
        "identifier": "10.5281/zenodo.6595622", 
        "relation": "isVersionOf"
All versions This version
Views 2727
Downloads 2626
Data volume 4.5 MB4.5 MB
Unique views 2727
Unique downloads 2525


Cite as