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Criminalisation of solidarity. Whether activists who help forced migrants in the borderland can be penalised for their actions?

Klaus Witold

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  <identifier identifierType="DOI">10.5281/zenodo.6595623</identifier>
      <creatorName>Klaus Witold</creatorName>
      <affiliation>ILS PAS</affiliation>
    <title>Criminalisation of solidarity. Whether activists who help forced migrants in the borderland can be penalised for their actions?</title>
    <date dateType="Issued">2022-08-30</date>
  <resourceType resourceTypeGeneral="BookChapter"/>
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    <relatedIdentifier relatedIdentifierType="DOI" relationType="IsVersionOf">10.5281/zenodo.6595622</relatedIdentifier>
    <rights rightsURI="">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</rights>
    <rights rightsURI="info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess">Open Access</rights>
    <description descriptionType="Abstract">&lt;p&gt;Since early August 2021, when the humanitarian crisis began to unfold on the Polish-Belarusian border, the&amp;nbsp;key actors who provide real help to migrants in borderland forests are activists and local residents. The role&amp;nbsp;of the latter cannot be overestimated, especially when they live and act in a state of emergency zone to which&amp;nbsp;no one else has access. This assistance has been met with both great appreciation from one &amp;ndash; large &amp;ndash; part of&amp;nbsp;society and with condemnation from another. Some of those who condemn it include public officials (both&amp;nbsp;members of the Border Guard and other law enforcement agencies) who threaten activists rescuing people&amp;nbsp;in border area with criminal prosecution. The two legal provisions that they most often refer to are: assistance&amp;nbsp;in facilitating illegal stay in Poland (Art. 264a &amp;sect; 1 of the Polish Criminal Code &amp;ndash; hereafter PCC) and&amp;nbsp;assistance in organising illegal border crossings (Art. 264a &amp;sect; 2 PCC). In this analysis, I would like to discuss&amp;nbsp;these regulations from the point of view of whether they permit punishment for granting humanitarian aid.&lt;/p&gt;</description>
    <description descriptionType="Other">{"references": ["Z. \u0106wi\u0105kalski In: W. Wr\u00f3bel, A. Zoll (eds.) (2017). Kodeks karny. Cz\u0119\u015b\u0107 szczeg\u00f3lna. Vol. II. Part II. Komentarz [Criminal Code: Special Part. Volume II. Part II. Commentary]. Warsaw: Wolters Kluwer, LEX.", "A. Lach In: V. Konarska-Wrzosek (ed.) (2020). Kodeks karny. Komentarz [Criminal Code: Commentary]. Warsaw: Wolters Kluwer."]}</description>
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