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The use of 'Push-back policies' by Polish officers from the perspective of the provisions of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court

Wierczyńska, Karolina

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      "pages": "18-19", 
      "title": "Beyond the law. Legal assessment of the Polish state's activities in response to the humanitarian crisis on the Polish-Belarusian border"
    "doi": "10.5281/zenodo.6595516", 
    "description": "<p>In assessing the conduct of Polish officers in the context of their push-back operations, or deportation,&nbsp;meaning the process of forcing back to Belarus persons who, in the opinion of the Polish authorities, have&nbsp;illegally crossed the border, I will confine myself to one crime listed in Art. 5 of the Statute of the International&nbsp;Criminal Court (hereinafter ICC) and defined in Art. 7 thereof, namely the crime against humanity.&nbsp;Given the absence of genocidal intent, the assessment will not address whether the conditions for the crime&nbsp;of genocide, as defined in Art. 6 of the ICC Statute, are met. Furthermore, due to the absence of an armed&nbsp;conflict on the territory of Poland, the assessment will not address war crimes or aggression, as we are not&nbsp;dealing so far with acts that could be qualified as aggression. For such an evaluation to be possible, acts of&nbsp;aggression would have to occur which, according to Art. 8 bis of the Statute, would &lsquo;by its character, gravity&nbsp;and scale, constitute a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations&rsquo;. According to the Understandings&nbsp;regarding the amendment to the Statute, these conditions must be met contemporaneously and&nbsp;must be sufficiently grave to justify the indisputability of such an assessment. The incidents at the border&nbsp;that are currently taking place do not meet these prerequisites to the extent that would justify describing&nbsp;them as acts of aggression.</p>", 
    "language": "eng", 
    "title": "The use of 'Push-back policies' by Polish officers from the perspective of the provisions of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court", 
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      "publisher": "Institute of Law Studies Polish Academy of Sciences", 
      "place": "Warsaw", 
      "isbn": "978-83-66300-68-2"
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      "Poprawki do Rzymskiego Statutu Mi\u0119dzynarodowego Trybuna\u0142u Karnego, sporz\u0105dzonego w Rzymie dnia 17 lipca 1998 r., przyj\u0119te podczas konferencji rewizyjnej w Kampali (rezolucje nr 5 i 6) w dniach 10 i 11 czerwca 2010 r., Dz.U. z 2018 r., poz. 1753,", 
      "A. Mikulska, Jezus, Rad\u017ca, Ahmad i inni stracili \u017cycie na granicy. Jak europejskie granice sta\u0142y si\u0119 cmentarzami, 2021,", 
      "Europejska Konwencja Praw Cz\u0142owieka, Europejski Trybuna\u0142 Praw Cz\u0142owieka, Council of Europe, Strasbourg 2021,", 
      "Wyrok ETPCz z dnia 23 lipca 2020 r. w sprawie M. K. i inni przeciwko Polsce, 40503/17, 42902/17 i 43643/17, HUDOC.", 
      "Wyrok ETPCz z dnia 8 lipca 2021 r. w sprawie D. A. i inni przeciwko Polsce, sprawa nr 51246/17, ECLI:CE:ECHR:2021:0708JUD005124617", 
      "B. Erling, Grupa \"Honor\" skieruje pi\u0119\u0107 wniosk\u00f3w do prokuratury. \"Chcemy te\u017c dzia\u0142a\u0107 edukacyjnie\" 2021,,grupa-_honor_-skieruje-piec-wnioskow-do-prokuratury_-_chcemy-tez-dzialac-edukacyjnie_"
    "publication_date": "2022-06-30", 
    "creators": [
        "affiliation": "ILS PAS", 
        "name": "Wierczy\u0144ska, Karolina"
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