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The use of 'Push-back policies' by Polish officers from the perspective of the provisions of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court

Wierczyńska, Karolina

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  <identifier identifierType="DOI">10.5281/zenodo.6595516</identifier>
      <creatorName>Wierczyńska, Karolina</creatorName>
      <affiliation>ILS PAS</affiliation>
    <title>The use of 'Push-back policies' by Polish officers from the perspective of the provisions of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court</title>
    <date dateType="Issued">2022-06-30</date>
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    <relatedIdentifier relatedIdentifierType="DOI" relationType="IsVersionOf">10.5281/zenodo.6595515</relatedIdentifier>
    <rights rightsURI="">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</rights>
    <rights rightsURI="info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess">Open Access</rights>
    <description descriptionType="Abstract">&lt;p&gt;In assessing the conduct of Polish officers in the context of their push-back operations, or deportation,&amp;nbsp;meaning the process of forcing back to Belarus persons who, in the opinion of the Polish authorities, have&amp;nbsp;illegally crossed the border, I will confine myself to one crime listed in Art. 5 of the Statute of the International&amp;nbsp;Criminal Court (hereinafter ICC) and defined in Art. 7 thereof, namely the crime against humanity.&amp;nbsp;Given the absence of genocidal intent, the assessment will not address whether the conditions for the crime&amp;nbsp;of genocide, as defined in Art. 6 of the ICC Statute, are met. Furthermore, due to the absence of an armed&amp;nbsp;conflict on the territory of Poland, the assessment will not address war crimes or aggression, as we are not&amp;nbsp;dealing so far with acts that could be qualified as aggression. For such an evaluation to be possible, acts of&amp;nbsp;aggression would have to occur which, according to Art. 8 bis of the Statute, would &amp;lsquo;by its character, gravity&amp;nbsp;and scale, constitute a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations&amp;rsquo;. According to the Understandings&amp;nbsp;regarding the amendment to the Statute, these conditions must be met contemporaneously and&amp;nbsp;must be sufficiently grave to justify the indisputability of such an assessment. The incidents at the border&amp;nbsp;that are currently taking place do not meet these prerequisites to the extent that would justify describing&amp;nbsp;them as acts of aggression.&lt;/p&gt;</description>
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