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Graph Laplacian Diffusion Localization of Connected and Automated Vehicles

Piperigkos, Nikos; Lalos S., Aris; Berberidis, Kostas

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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;In this paper, we design distributed multi-modal localization approaches for Connected and Automated vehicles. We utilize information diffusion on graphs formed by moving vehicles, based on Adapt-then-Combine strategies coupled with the Least-Mean-Squares and the Conjugate Gradient algorithms. We treat the vehicular network as an undirected graph, where vehicles communicate with each other by means of Vehicle-toVehicle communication protocols. Connected vehicles perform cooperative fusion of different measurement modalities, including location and range measurements, in order to estimate both their positions and the positions of all other networked vehicles, by interacting only with their local neighborhood. The trajectories of vehicles were generated either by a well-known kinematic model, or by using the CARLA autonomous driving simulator. The proposed distributed and diffusion localization schemes significantly reduced the GPS error and do not only converged to the global solution, but they even outperformed it. Extensive simulation studies highlight the benefits of the various methods, which in turn outperform other state of the art approaches. The impact of the network connections and the network latency are also investigated.&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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