Dataset Open Access

Supplementary Materials for "Measurements of LoRaWAN Technology in Urban Scenarios: A Data Descriptor"

Pavel Masek; Martin Stusek; Ekaterina Svertoka; Jan Pospisil; Radim Burget; Elena Simona Lohan; Ion Marghescu; Jiri Hosek; Aleksandr Ometov

This work corresponds to the results described in paper "Measurements of LoRaWAN Technology in Urban Scenarios: A Data Descriptor":

The provided open-access dataset consists of JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) records stored in Comma-Separated Values (CSV) files, and the data were gathered in a span of multiple hours during two days of measurements. Each JSON file contains parameters as described below. In addition to the payload itself, every record on the server also contains additional metadata. Metadata contains general information about the LoRaWAN message and the array of parameters that provide more detailed message reception information for each Gateway (GW) receiving the message separately. Notably, these names may differ between LoRaWAN service providers. In the case of Ceske Radiokomunikace (CRa), the metadata contains the following parameters:

  • cmd—Command (message type): Incoming (uplink) message from the ED via the GW to the server. This also contains metadata from receiving GWs.

  • seqno—Sequence number: The sequence number of the message in the form of a 32-bit integer. The Network Server generates this number.

  • EUI—Extended Unique Identifier: A global identifier (64-bit) of the terminal device, which the manufacturer or owner assigns. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Registration Authority manages the assignment of identifier pools. It is given in hexadecimal format. This identifier is used similarly to the MAC address of the network interface.

  • ts—Timestamp: The time of the received message recorded at the first receiving GW. The parameter indicates the number of milliseconds since the Unix epoch (1 January 1970).

  • fcnt—Frame count: Sequential number of the message (16-bit integer) sent from the device. In the case of a device reset, the value of the counter starts from zero. The value of this parameter can be used to detect a failure to receive messages.

  • port—The port number is used to distinguish the type of application payload message. It is, therefore, not necessary to explicitly add it to the application payload. The Port parameter’s (8-bit integer) possible values range from 1 to 223 for the users. Other values are reserved.

  • freq—Frequency: A value that corresponds to the frequency (expressed in Hertz) of the given LoRaWAN channel. Before transmitting each message, the ED pseudo-randomly selects from the range of available LoRaWAN channels on which it will transmit the message.

  • toa—Time on Air: Message transmission time in milliseconds. This value is directly proportional to the data rate and message size.

  • dr—Data Rate: The string parameter specifying the spreading factor, bandwidth, and coding rate. The spreading factor fundamentally affects the data rate and thus, the message time on-air. The value can be selected from the interval 7 to 12. Bandwidth values are only 125, 250, and 500 kHz. The larger the bandwidth, the higher the data rate.

  • ack—Acknowledge: The parameter is of a Boolean type and indicates whether the ED requires confirmation of the sent message. The default is to avoid using acknowledgments to reduce network traffic.

  • gws—Gateways: Contain an array of information objects from individual GWs, especially information about the parameters of the received signal, timestamp, identifier, and location of the GW.

    • rssi—Received Signal Strength Indicator: The received signal level on the GW, expressed in dBm. The threshold value of the Semtech SX1301 receiver is −142 dBm [44].

    • snr—Signal-to-Noise Ratio: This parameter gives the ratio between the received power signal and the noise floor power level in dB. If the SNR is greater than 0, the received signal level is higher than the noise level.

    • ts—Timestamp: The time of the received message in milliseconds since the Unix era (1 January 1970).

    • tmms—Time in ms: GPS time in milliseconds since 6 February 1980. The GW must have GPS connectivity.

    • time—UTC of the received message, with microsecond precision in the ISO 8601 format.

    • gweui—GW extended unique identifier: The 64-bit number in a hexadecimal format specific for each GW.

    • lat—Latitude: GW GPS latitude parameter in decimal degrees. The GW must have GPS connectivity.

    • lon—Longitude: GW GPS longitude parameter in decimal degrees. The GW must have GPS connectivity.

  • bat—Battery status of the ED 8-bit integer value (0—external power supply, 255—battery status is unknown, 1–254—correspond to battery status 0–100%).

  • data—The field contains HEX data, which is unique for the LoRaWAN device in question. It consists of information related to temperature, position, battery level, etc. In the case of our device, it represents our unique data format, which is specifically designed for the purposes of our measurements.

  • device_Lat—Latitude of the measurement point gathered from the GPS.

  • device_Lon—Longitude of the measurement point gathered from the GPS.

The undeniable advantage of the JSON format is that it is in a human-readable form. Thus, without the need for complex parsing, necessary information can be read immediately.

This work is a data descriptor paper for measurements related to various operational aspects of LoRaWAN communication technology collected in Brno, Czech Republic. This paper also provides data characterizing the long-term behavior of the LoRaWAN channel collected during the two-month measurement campaign. It covers two measurement locations, one at the university premises, and the second situated near the city center. The dataset's primary goal is to provide the researchers lacking LoRaWAN devices with an opportunity to compare and analyze the information obtained from 303 different outdoor test locations transmitting to up to 20 gateways operating in the 868 MHz band in a varying metropolitan landscape. To collect the data, we developed a prototype equipped with a Microchip RN2483 Low-Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN) LoRaWAN technology transceiver module for the field measurements. As an example of data utilization, we showed the Signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR) and Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) in relation to the closest gateway distance.
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