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Design and modeling of a cost-effective achromatic Fresnel lens for concentrating photovoltaics

Vallerotto, Guido; Victoria, Marta; Askins, Stephen; Herrero, Rebecca; Domínguez, César; Antón, Ignacio ; Sala, Gabriel


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        <foaf:name>Antón, Ignacio</foaf:name>
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        <foaf:name>Sala, Gabriel</foaf:name>
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    <dct:title>Design and modeling of a cost-effective achromatic Fresnel lens for concentrating photovoltaics</dct:title>
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    <dct:issued rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#gYear">2016</dct:issued>
    <dcat:keyword>Fresnel Lens</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>Concentrators</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>Aberrations</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>Solar Energy</dcat:keyword>
    <dct:issued rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#date">2016-08-16</dct:issued>
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    <dct:description>&lt;p&gt;The paper presents a novel Fresnel lens for concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) technologies with reduced chromatic aberration that allows increasing the attainable concentration. Although achromatic doublets for CPV have previously been proposed, they were based on coupling two plastic materials but no practical fabrication procedure was described. Here we present for the first time a cost-effective manufacturing process consisting in laminating a high-dispersion plastic, a low-dispersion elastomer and a rigid glass substrate. Ray-tracing simulations showed a concentration factor three times higher than that attained by a classic Silicone On Glass (SOG) Fresnel lens while maintaining the same acceptance angle. Due to the cost-effective manufacturing process the significant performance increase due to the higher concentration could be attained at a cost comparable with the current manufacturing cost of a conventional SOG Fresnel lens. Even taking into account the small efficiency loss resulting from the more complex geometry (about 4%) we believe that this novel concept may introduce a disruptive change in optics for CPV.&lt;/p&gt;</dct:description>
    <dct:description xml:lang="">{"references": ["1. M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, \u201cSolar cell efficiency tables (version 47),\u201d Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 24 (1), 3\u201311 (2016).", "2. E. Lorenzo and G. Sala, \u201cHybrid silicone-glass Fresnel lens as concentrator for photovoltaic applications,\u201d The Sun (Baltim., Md.), 536\u2013539 (1979).", "3. M. Victoria, \u201cNew concepts and techniques for the development of high-efficiency concentrating photovoltaic modules,\u201d PhD, E.T.S.I. Telecomunicaci\u00f3n (UPM) (2014).", "4. M. Victoria, C. Dom\u00ednguez, I. Ant\u00f3n, and G. Sala, \u201cComparative analysis of different secondary optical elements for aspheric primary lenses,\u201d Opt. Express 17 (8), 6487\u20136492 (2009).", "5. S. Askins, M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Dom\u00ednguez, I. Ant\u00f3n, G. Sala, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, \u201cEffects of Temperature on Hybrid Lens Performance,\u201d AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 57\u201360 (2011).", "6. F. Languy, K. Fleury, C. Lenaerts, J. Loicq, D. Regaert, T. Thibert, and S. Habraken, \u201cFlat Fresnel doublets made of PMMA and PC: combining low cost production and very high concentration ratio for CPV,\u201d Opt. Express 19 (S3 Suppl 3), A280\u2013A294 (2011).", "7. E. Hecht, Optics, 3rd ed. (Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 1998).", "8. \u201cASTM G173 standard tables for reference solar spectral irradiances", "9. K. R. McIntosh, J. N. Cotsell, J. S. Cumpston, A. W. Norris, N. E. Powell, and B. M. Ketola, \u201cAn optical comparison of silicone and EVA encapsulants for conventional silicon PV modules: A ray-tracing study,\u201d 34th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2009), pp. 544\u2013549.", "10. S. N. Kasarova, N. G. Sultanova, C. D. Ivanov, and I. D. Nikolov, \u201cAnalysis of the dispersion of optical plastic materials,\u201d Opt. Mater. 29 (11), 1481\u20131490 (2007).", "11. I. Ant\u00f3n, D. Pach\u00f3n, and G. Sala, \u201cCharacterization of optical collectors for concentration photovoltaic applications,\u201d Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11 (6), 387\u2013405 (2003).", "12. M. Victoria, S. Askins, R. Herrero, I. Ant\u00f3n, and G. Sala, \u201cAssessment of the optical efficiency of a Primary Lens to be used in a CPV system,\u201d Sol. Energy 134, 406\u2013415 (2016).", "13. M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Dom\u00ednguez, I. Ant\u00f3n, S. Askins, and G. Sala, \u201cCharacterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi\u2010junction solar cells,\u201d Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21 (3), 308\u2013318 (2013).", "14. S. R. Kurtz and M. J. O\u2019Neill, \u201cEstimating and controlling chromatic aberration losses for two-junction, two-terminal devices in refractive concentrator systems,\u201d in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (1996), pp. 361\u2013364.", "15. V. D. Rumyantsev, N. Y. Davidyuk, E. A. Ionova, P. V. Pokrovskiy, N. A. Sadchikov, and V. M. Andreev, \u201cThermal Regimes of Fresnel Lenses and Cells in \u201cAll\u2010Glass\u201d HCPV Modules,\u201d AIP Conf. Proc. 1277, 89\u201392 (2010).", "16. T. Hornung, A. Bachmaier, P. Nitz, and A. Gombert, \u201cTemperature Dependent Measurement And Simulation Of Fresnel Lenses For Concentrating Photovoltaics, \u201d in (AIP Publishing, 2010), Vol. 1277, pp. 85\u201388.", "17. T. Hornung, M. Steiner, and P. Nitz, \u201cEstimation of the Influence of Fresnel Lens Temperature on Energy Generation of a Concentrator Photovoltaic System,\u201d Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 99, 333\u2013338 (2012).", "18. T. Schult, M. Neubauer, Y. Bessler, P. Nitz, and A. Gombert, \u201cTemperature Dependence of Fresnel Lenses for Concentrating Photovoltaics,\u201d 2nd Int. Workshop Conc. Photovolt. Opt. Power (2009).", "19. J. M. Cariou, J. Dugas, L. Martin, and P. Michel, \u201cRefractive-index variations with temperature of PMMA and polycarbonate,\u201d Appl. Opt. 25 (3), 334\u2013336 (1986)."]}</dct:description>
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