Journal article Open Access
Calculations of solar collector hourly energy output as part of central solar water heating system in multi-apartment building in Tel-Aviv.
Collector efficiency depends on solar radiation, collector temperature and ambient temperature.
Three iterations of calculations were applied, showing relatively small differences between the iterations. The calculated yearly efficiency is almost equal to the efficiency determined according to the national standard. Monthly efficiency is in the range of -5.2% to +3.4% difference from the efficiency determined according to the national standard. Higher efficiency is in winter. The maximum hourly efficiency is at 8 o’clock in July, 75.2%.
Joseph Nowarski, Solar Israel – A practical and legislative model, Renewable Energy World, March-April 2000, p93-99
Joseph Nowarski, Energy Balance of Solar Water Heaters, academia.edu/34457200
Joseph Nowarski, Heat Transfer in Solar Water Heaters Pipes, academia.edu/34459205
Chromagen Solar Thermal Systems, chromagen.co.il, chromagen.com
Experimental Measurements of Hot Water Stratification in a Heat Storage Tank, iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1757-899X/471/2/022014