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Dataset Open Access

# ERA-NUTS: meteorological time-series based on C3S ERA5 for European regions (1980-2021)

# ERA-NUTS (1980-2021)

This dataset contains a set of time-series of meteorological variables based on Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) ERA5 reanalysis. The data files can be downloaded from here while notebooks and other files can be found on the associated Github repository.

This data has been generated with the aim of providing hourly time-series of the meteorological variables commonly used for power system modelling and, more in general, studies on energy systems.

An example of the analysis that can be performed with ERA-NUTS is shown in this video.

Important: this dataset is still a work-in-progress, we will add more analysis and variables in the near-future. If you spot an error or something strange in the data please tell us sending an email or opening an Issue in the associated Github repository.

## Data
The time-series have hourly/daily/monthly frequency and are aggregated following the NUTS  2016 classification. NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) is a European Union standard for referencing the subdivisions of countries (member states, candidate countries and EFTA countries).

This dataset contains NUTS0/1/2 time-series for the following variables obtained from the ERA5 reanalysis data (in brackets the name of the variable on the Copernicus Data Store and its unit measure):

- t2m: 2-meter temperature (2m_temperature, Celsius degrees)
- ssrd: Surface solar radiation (surface_solar_radiation_downwards, Watt per square meter)
- ssrdc: Surface solar radiation clear-sky (surface_solar_radiation_downward_clear_sky, Watt per square meter)
- ro: Runoff (runoff, millimeters)

There are also a set of derived variables:
- ws10: Wind speed at 10 meters (derived by 10m_u_component_of_wind and 10m_v_component_of_wind, meters per second)
- ws100: Wind speed at 100 meters (derived by 100m_u_component_of_wind and 100m_v_component_of_wind, meters per second)
- CS: Clear-Sky index (the ratio between the solar radiation and the solar radiation clear-sky)
- HDD/CDD: Heating/Cooling Degree days (derived by 2-meter temperature the EUROSTAT definition.

For each variable we have 367 440 hourly samples (from 01-01-1980 00:00:00 to 31-12-2021 23:00:00) for 34/115/309 regions (NUTS 0/1/2).

The data is provided in two formats:

- NetCDF version 4 (all the variables hourly and CDD/HDD daily). NOTE: the variables are stored as int16 type using a scale_factor to minimise the size of the files.
- Comma Separated Value ("single index" format for all the variables and the time frequencies and "stacked" only for daily and monthly)

All the CSV files are stored in a zipped file for each variable.

## Methodology

The time-series have been generated using the following workflow:

1. The NetCDF files are downloaded from the Copernicus Data Store from the ERA5 hourly data on single levels from 1979 to present dataset
2. The data is read in R with the climate4r packages and aggregated using the function /get_ts_from_shp from panas. All the variables are aggregated at the NUTS boundaries using the average except for the runoff, which consists of the sum of all the grid points within the regional/national borders.
3. The derived variables (wind speed, CDD/HDD, clear-sky) are computed and all the CSV files are generated using R
4. The NetCDF are created using xarray in Python 3.8.

## Example notebooks

In the folder notebooks on the associated Github repository there are two Jupyter notebooks which shows how to deal effectively with the NetCDF data in xarray and how to visualise them in several ways by using matplotlib or the enlopy package.

There are currently two notebooks:

- exploring-ERA-NUTS: it shows how to open the NetCDF files (with Dask), how to manipulate and visualise them.
- ERA-NUTS-explore-with-widget: explorer interactively the datasets with [jupyter]() and ipywidgets.

The notebook exploring-ERA-NUTS is also available rendered as HTML.

In the folder additional fileson the associated Github repository there is a map showing the spatial resolution of the ERA5 reanalysis and a CSV file specifying the number of grid points with respect to each NUTS0/1/2 region.

This dataset is released under CC-BY-4.0 license.

## Changelog

2022-02-08 Updated the wind speed and temperature data due to missing months.

Files (5.0 GB)
Name Size
era-nuts-CDD-nuts0-daily.nc
md5:d3fcc420ef5154071c48806a14e9cbde
1.2 MB
era-nuts-CDD-nuts1-daily.nc
md5:d8295501be17d00a25235c170a19e6f1
3.7 MB
era-nuts-CDD-nuts2-daily.nc
md5:c79f4c7432a2d1959e861da1a8e27839
9.6 MB
era-nuts-CDD.zip
md5:085b3bd82679b1421906db18a2fbba26
20.9 MB
era-nuts-CS-nuts0-hourly.nc
md5:0e18c9d18acecae0026ba8d004d42022
28.0 MB
era-nuts-CS-nuts1-hourly.nc
md5:8f156ea74739ca1abaff827cfc563418
87.6 MB
era-nuts-CS-nuts2-hourly.nc
md5:8d048c392665f237957e05bfe96ce5c4
230.5 MB
era-nuts-CS.zip
md5:368ed10c0e5debcd249507617d040942
220.8 MB
era-nuts-HDD-nuts0-daily.nc
md5:b680f1ff3df19837d1a6772826d81a39
1.2 MB
era-nuts-HDD-nuts1-daily.nc
md5:a6b51cc84e8c5f50a0f137d8a7ec40e9
3.7 MB
era-nuts-HDD-nuts2-daily.nc
md5:f87075d32dc1054d0848c55fae4aff8d
9.6 MB
era-nuts-HDD.zip
md5:be320700e4f563151f1e762e41a16546
46.3 MB
era-nuts-ro-nuts0-hourly.nc
md5:372b20d808ff9dda90dc2ac564a8a2d3
28.0 MB
era-nuts-ro-nuts1-hourly.nc
md5:96cb4fc696f9e34ae1d566d0b778444a
87.6 MB
era-nuts-ro-nuts2-hourly.nc
md5:7b88c090a3032db02a0a3edcb3d723ea
230.5 MB
era-nuts-ro.zip
md5:6a700a8b333e84ee728eb7640d6f0711
91.6 MB
era-nuts-sd-nuts0-hourly.nc
md5:6f6333d2ab604d6476ef2a4d64a3f63f
28.0 MB
era-nuts-sd-nuts1-hourly.nc
md5:f7d3da073b5a7ff1aafec28f76057306
87.6 MB
era-nuts-sd-nuts2-hourly.nc
md5:26cb1a579c4dfabbba89c9c3ddbb9d2e
230.5 MB
era-nuts-sd.zip
md5:c0f53bc9268bb0a8925f7fb153cce746
144.7 MB
era-nuts-ssrd-nuts0-hourly.nc
md5:1eab1abfc0e14d30b5562ce0babc40da
28.0 MB
era-nuts-ssrd-nuts1-hourly.nc
87.6 MB
era-nuts-ssrd-nuts2-hourly.nc
md5:45906911e0b8a490a822d72e13404e85
230.5 MB
era-nuts-ssrd.zip
md5:3bfbb2abeb8f3367665f175dffdbc121
349.7 MB
era-nuts-ssrdc-nuts0-hourly.nc
md5:b4cdc003ab626c83251c10b40e861641
28.0 MB
era-nuts-ssrdc-nuts1-hourly.nc
md5:a681775ba0e437d4258bbcd7d44ee241
87.6 MB
era-nuts-ssrdc-nuts2-hourly.nc
md5:a90138b11b85f38e1740a93372cb18e9
230.5 MB
era-nuts-ssrdc.zip
md5:bb8513a33c710bf164361425b6a208e5
350.0 MB
era-nuts-t2m-nuts0-hourly.nc
md5:7a98f60785249c7f4fc2615b0a1bced4
28.0 MB
era-nuts-t2m-nuts1-hourly.nc
md5:89e00084c9ff96f5191ba998ff5b00de
87.6 MB
era-nuts-t2m-nuts2-hourly.nc
230.5 MB
era-nuts-t2m.zip
md5:0f71bfa21a7325b2c7b78f11e3e906fc
377.3 MB
era-nuts-ws10-nuts0-hourly.nc
md5:b916d2b67b5352ca55c8b0f5d54c55ff
28.0 MB
era-nuts-ws10-nuts1-hourly.nc
md5:0aeab2790025f13a4d5198435df40163
87.6 MB
era-nuts-ws10-nuts2-hourly.nc
md5:c8fe018f91e09d95ceaf91f51732681d
230.5 MB
era-nuts-ws10.zip
md5:f102fc75ec788a90e4951df47a646134
325.0 MB
era-nuts-ws100-nuts0-hourly.nc
md5:db6f77ea85200854b80783905f452b0c
28.0 MB
era-nuts-ws100-nuts1-hourly.nc
md5:a34aff80709580c1c85f2ab1e574f68c
87.6 MB
era-nuts-ws100-nuts2-hourly.nc
md5:cf695e628f17b92825d9b1fb4b0a0486
230.5 MB
era-nuts-ws100.zip
md5:38da14ddb07b925d22166b715f873824
234.8 MB
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