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Dataset Open Access

ERA-NUTS: meteorological time-series based on C3S ERA5 for European regions (1980-2021)

M. De Felice; K. Kavvadias

# ERA-NUTS (1980-2021)

This dataset contains a set of time-series of meteorological variables based on Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) ERA5 reanalysis. The data files can be downloaded from here while notebooks and other files can be found on the associated Github repository.

This data has been generated with the aim of providing hourly time-series of the meteorological variables commonly used for power system modelling and, more in general, studies on energy systems.

An example of the analysis that can be performed with ERA-NUTS is shown in this video.

Important: this dataset is still a work-in-progress, we will add more analysis and variables in the near-future. If you spot an error or something strange in the data please tell us sending an email or opening an Issue in the associated Github repository.

## Data
The time-series have hourly/daily/monthly frequency and are aggregated following the NUTS  2016 classification. NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) is a European Union standard for referencing the subdivisions of countries (member states, candidate countries and EFTA countries).

This dataset contains NUTS0/1/2 time-series for the following variables obtained from the ERA5 reanalysis data (in brackets the name of the variable on the Copernicus Data Store and its unit measure):

  - t2m: 2-meter temperature (`2m_temperature`, Celsius degrees)
  - ssrd: Surface solar radiation (`surface_solar_radiation_downwards`, Watt per square meter)
  - ssrdc: Surface solar radiation clear-sky (`surface_solar_radiation_downward_clear_sky`, Watt per square meter)
  - ro: Runoff (`runoff`, millimeters)
 
There are also a set of derived variables:
  - ws10: Wind speed at 10 meters (derived by `10m_u_component_of_wind` and `10m_v_component_of_wind`, meters per second)
  - ws100: Wind speed at 100 meters (derived by `100m_u_component_of_wind` and `100m_v_component_of_wind`, meters per second)
  - CS: Clear-Sky index (the ratio between the solar radiation and the solar radiation clear-sky)
  - HDD/CDD: Heating/Cooling Degree days (derived by 2-meter temperature the EUROSTAT definition.

For each variable we have 367 440 hourly samples (from 01-01-1980 00:00:00 to 31-12-2021 23:00:00) for 34/115/309 regions (NUTS 0/1/2).
 
The data is provided in two formats:

  - NetCDF version 4 (all the variables hourly and CDD/HDD daily). NOTE: the variables are stored as `int16` type using a `scale_factor` to minimise the size of the files.
  - Comma Separated Value ("single index" format for all the variables and the time frequencies and "stacked" only for daily and monthly)
 
All the CSV files are stored in a zipped file for each variable.

## Methodology

The time-series have been generated using the following workflow:

  1. The NetCDF files are downloaded from the Copernicus Data Store from the ERA5 hourly data on single levels from 1979 to present dataset
  2. The data is read in R with the climate4r packages and aggregated using the function `/get_ts_from_shp` from panas. All the variables are aggregated at the NUTS boundaries using the average except for the runoff, which consists of the sum of all the grid points within the regional/national borders.
  3. The derived variables (wind speed, CDD/HDD, clear-sky) are computed and all the CSV files are generated using R
  4. The NetCDF are created using `xarray` in Python 3.8.

## Example notebooks

In the folder `notebooks` on the associated Github repository there are two Jupyter notebooks which shows how to deal effectively with the NetCDF data in `xarray` and how to visualise them in several ways by using matplotlib or the enlopy package.

There are currently two notebooks:

  - exploring-ERA-NUTS: it shows how to open the NetCDF files (with Dask), how to manipulate and visualise them.
  - ERA-NUTS-explore-with-widget: explorer interactively the datasets with [jupyter]() and ipywidgets.

The notebook `exploring-ERA-NUTS` is also available rendered as HTML.

## Additional files

In the folder `additional files`on the associated Github repository there is a map showing the spatial resolution of the ERA5 reanalysis and a CSV file specifying the number of grid points with respect to each NUTS0/1/2 region.

## License

This dataset is released under CC-BY-4.0 license.

 

Files (5.1 GB)
Name Size
era-nuts-CDD-nuts0-daily.nc
md5:d3fcc420ef5154071c48806a14e9cbde
1.2 MB Download
era-nuts-CDD-nuts1-daily.nc
md5:d8295501be17d00a25235c170a19e6f1
3.7 MB Download
era-nuts-CDD-nuts2-daily.nc
md5:c79f4c7432a2d1959e861da1a8e27839
9.6 MB Download
era-nuts-CDD.zip
md5:085b3bd82679b1421906db18a2fbba26
20.9 MB Download
era-nuts-CS-nuts0-hourly.nc
md5:0e18c9d18acecae0026ba8d004d42022
28.0 MB Download
era-nuts-CS-nuts1-hourly.nc
md5:8f156ea74739ca1abaff827cfc563418
87.6 MB Download
era-nuts-CS-nuts2-hourly.nc
md5:8d048c392665f237957e05bfe96ce5c4
230.5 MB Download
era-nuts-CS.zip
md5:368ed10c0e5debcd249507617d040942
220.8 MB Download
era-nuts-HDD-nuts0-daily.nc
md5:b680f1ff3df19837d1a6772826d81a39
1.2 MB Download
era-nuts-HDD-nuts1-daily.nc
md5:a6b51cc84e8c5f50a0f137d8a7ec40e9
3.7 MB Download
era-nuts-HDD-nuts2-daily.nc
md5:f87075d32dc1054d0848c55fae4aff8d
9.6 MB Download
era-nuts-HDD.zip
md5:be320700e4f563151f1e762e41a16546
46.3 MB Download
era-nuts-ro-nuts0-hourly.nc
md5:372b20d808ff9dda90dc2ac564a8a2d3
28.0 MB Download
era-nuts-ro-nuts1-hourly.nc
md5:96cb4fc696f9e34ae1d566d0b778444a
87.6 MB Download
era-nuts-ro-nuts2-hourly.nc
md5:7b88c090a3032db02a0a3edcb3d723ea
230.5 MB Download
era-nuts-ro.zip
md5:6a700a8b333e84ee728eb7640d6f0711
91.6 MB Download
era-nuts-sd-nuts0-hourly.nc
md5:6f6333d2ab604d6476ef2a4d64a3f63f
28.0 MB Download
era-nuts-sd-nuts1-hourly.nc
md5:f7d3da073b5a7ff1aafec28f76057306
87.6 MB Download
era-nuts-sd-nuts2-hourly.nc
md5:26cb1a579c4dfabbba89c9c3ddbb9d2e
230.5 MB Download
era-nuts-sd.zip
md5:c0f53bc9268bb0a8925f7fb153cce746
144.7 MB Download
era-nuts-ssrd-nuts0-hourly.nc
md5:1eab1abfc0e14d30b5562ce0babc40da
28.0 MB Download
era-nuts-ssrd-nuts1-hourly.nc
md5:d3f7aad242928c62777012200fa826aa
87.6 MB Download
era-nuts-ssrd-nuts2-hourly.nc
md5:45906911e0b8a490a822d72e13404e85
230.5 MB Download
era-nuts-ssrd.zip
md5:3bfbb2abeb8f3367665f175dffdbc121
349.7 MB Download
era-nuts-ssrdc-nuts0-hourly.nc
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28.0 MB Download
era-nuts-ssrdc-nuts1-hourly.nc
md5:a681775ba0e437d4258bbcd7d44ee241
87.6 MB Download
era-nuts-ssrdc-nuts2-hourly.nc
md5:a90138b11b85f38e1740a93372cb18e9
230.5 MB Download
era-nuts-ssrdc.zip
md5:bb8513a33c710bf164361425b6a208e5
350.0 MB Download
era-nuts-t2m-nuts0-hourly.nc
md5:d9b571a65c3db20445517c15666879fa
27.9 MB Download
era-nuts-t2m-nuts1-hourly.nc
md5:b932be17530a3ffd7e076ff3f47ae6a1
87.5 MB Download
era-nuts-t2m-nuts2-hourly.nc
md5:3af6702105f332c10628ad52d8eadd4a
230.0 MB Download
era-nuts-t2m.zip
md5:92193037094aac240ae3557645d39c64
401.8 MB Download
era-nuts-ws10-nuts0-hourly.nc
md5:4f24585f4f9a64b49bff41261784db39
27.9 MB Download
era-nuts-ws10-nuts1-hourly.nc
md5:49964f5d1098badbce8af3d6a853217e
87.5 MB Download
era-nuts-ws10-nuts2-hourly.nc
md5:67a28dfe64e5505c0fff600d4f2708b0
230.0 MB Download
era-nuts-ws10.zip
md5:f875481b616e1a909047faf112aaadfa
349.4 MB Download
era-nuts-ws100-nuts0-hourly.nc
md5:f4b40041f436a8433b87a76f2d98c4db
27.9 MB Download
era-nuts-ws100-nuts1-hourly.nc
md5:403de9b0d6329492e52c588908e43c53
87.5 MB Download
era-nuts-ws100-nuts2-hourly.nc
md5:04f5f1e1441fba8b565b7295ec5327b2
230.0 MB Download
era-nuts-ws100.zip
md5:7467a345f8db514384132b9797e36d80
367.7 MB Download
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