Journal article Open Access

Global Surveillance Networks and International Health Regulations‎ in the ‎Early ‎Detection and Control of Epidemics‎

Güner, Öner


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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;&amp;Ouml;zet&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;Bulaşıcı hastalık tehditlerine karşı bir siper olmak &amp;uuml;zere d&amp;uuml;nyada ayrıntılı bir k&amp;uuml;resel sağlık sistemi geliştirilmiştir. Sistem, farklı paydaşlara hizmet eden &amp;ccedil;eşitli resmi ve gayri resmi kuruluş ağlarından oluşur. Bu ağ farklı ama&amp;ccedil;lara, y&amp;ouml;ntemlere, kaynaklara ve hesap verebilirliğe sahip; farklı etki alanlarında (yerel, ulusal, b&amp;ouml;lgesel veya k&amp;uuml;resel d&amp;uuml;zeyde) faaliyet g&amp;ouml;steren kamu kuruluşları, k&amp;acirc;r ama&amp;ccedil;lı ve k&amp;acirc;r amacı g&amp;uuml;tmeyen &amp;ouml;zel sekt&amp;ouml;r kuruluşlarından oluşmaktadır. Mevcut k&amp;uuml;resel sağlık sistemi, insan sağlığını korumak ve iyileştirmek i&amp;ccedil;in &amp;ouml;nemli &amp;ccedil;alışmalar ger&amp;ccedil;ekleştirmiştir. Bununla birlikte, d&amp;uuml;nya uzun s&amp;uuml;redir devam eden ve yeni ortaya &amp;ccedil;ıkan veya yeniden &amp;ouml;nem kazanan bulaşıcı hastalık tehditleriyle karşı karşıya kalmaya devam etmektedir. Bu tehditler, ciddiyet durumu ve risk ihtimalleri a&amp;ccedil;ısından b&amp;uuml;y&amp;uuml;k farklılıklar g&amp;ouml;stermekte ve her biri i&amp;ccedil;in ayrı m&amp;uuml;cadele dinamikleri gerekmektedir. Ayrıca, hastalık ve &amp;ouml;l&amp;uuml;m oranlarında olduğu gibi, bu enfeksiyonların farklılaşan bir dizi karmaşık sosyal ve ekonomik etkileri ve sonu&amp;ccedil;ları da s&amp;ouml;z konusudur. Mevcut haliyle k&amp;uuml;resel sağlık sisteminin halihazırdaki bir dizi bulaşıcı hastalık tehdidine karşı etkili koruma sağlayıp sağlayamayacağı tartışılmaktadır. Son zamanlarda ortaya &amp;ccedil;ıkan Ebola, Zika, dang humması, Şiddetli Akut Solunum Sendromu (SARS), Orta Doğu Solunum Sendromu (MERS), COVID-19, grip salgınları ve artan antimikrobiyal diren&amp;ccedil; tehdidi nedeniyle bu sistem ciddi sınavlar vermektedir. Zayıf sağlık sistemleri, şehirleşme, k&amp;uuml;reselleşme, iklim değişikliği, i&amp;ccedil; savaşlar ve &amp;ccedil;atışmalar ve insan ve hayvan pop&amp;uuml;lasyonları arasında patojen bulaşmasının değişen doğası, bazı riskli b&amp;ouml;lgelerdeki kontrols&amp;uuml;z n&amp;uuml;fus artışı mevcut endişeleri g&amp;uuml;n ge&amp;ccedil;tik&amp;ccedil;e daha da artırmaktadır. Laboratuvar kazalarından veya kasıtlı biyolojik saldırılardan kaynaklanan insan kaynaklı salgınlar ise diğer potansiyel riskler olarak değerlendirilmekte ve uluslararası iş birliği ve koordinasyonu &amp;ouml;nemli kılmaktadır.&amp;nbsp;Uluslararası epidemiyolojik s&amp;uuml;rveyans&amp;nbsp;&amp;lrm;sistemleri ve uluslararası sağlık t&amp;uuml;z&amp;uuml;ğ&amp;uuml; d&amp;uuml;zenlemeleri bulaşıcı hastalıkların salgın boyutlarına&amp;nbsp;&amp;lrm;ulaşmasını &amp;ouml;nlemede ve k&amp;uuml;resel riskleri en aza indirgemede kritik &amp;ouml;nem taşıyan erken m&amp;uuml;dahale uygulamaları ve ara&amp;ccedil;ları olarak etki alanlarını genişletirken, erken uyarı s&amp;uuml;rveyans sistemlerinin etkinliği yeni teknolojilerin de kullanılması ile geliştirilmektedir&amp;lrm;&amp;lrm;.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Abstract&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;An elaborate global health system has been developed around the world as a bulwark against&amp;nbsp;&amp;lrm;infectious disease threats. The system consists of various networks of formal and informal organizations serving different stakeholders. This network has different purposes, methods, resources and accountability; it consists of public institutions operating in different fields of influence (at local, national, regional or global level), profit-oriented and non-profit private sector organizations.&amp;nbsp;The current global health system has done important work to protect and improve human health. However, the world continues to face long-standing and emerging or re-emerging infectious disease threats.&amp;nbsp;These threats vary greatly in severity and probability of risk, and each requires separate struggle dynamics. In addition, as with morbidity and mortality rates, these infections have many complex social and economic effects and consequences that differ.&amp;nbsp;&amp;lrm;It is discussed whether the global health system with its current situation can provide effective protection against a number of communicable disease threats.&amp;nbsp;Due to the recent emerging threats of Ebola, Zika, dengue fever, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), COVID-19, and influenza epidemics, and the increasing threat of antimicrobial resistance, this system is being put to the test.&amp;nbsp;Weak health systems, urbanization, globalization, climate change, civil wars and conflicts, and the changing nature of pathogen transmission between human and animal populations, uncontrolled population growth in some risk areas aggravate current concerns.&amp;nbsp;&amp;quot;Human-induced outbreaks resulting from laboratory accidents&amp;quot; or deliberate biological attacks are considered as other potential risks, making international cooperation and coordination important. International epidemiological surveillance systems and international health regulation coverage are expanding their scope as early intervention practices and tools that are critical in preventing infectious diseases from reaching epidemic levels and minimizing global risks. Also, the effectiveness of early warning surveillance systems is being improved with the use of new technologies&amp;lrm;&amp;lrm;.&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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