Journal article Open Access

Global Surveillance Networks and International Health Regulations‎ in the ‎Early ‎Detection and Control of Epidemics‎

Güner, Öner


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{
  "note": "Salg\u0131n Hastal\u0131klar\u0131n Erken Tespiti ve Kontrol\u00fcnde K\u00fcresel S\u00fcrveyans \u200eA\u011flar\u0131 ve \u200eUluslararas\u0131 Sa\u011fl\u0131k T\u00fcz\u00fc\u011f\u00fc", 
  "DOI": "10.54584/lms.2022.12", 
  "container_title": "Life and Medical Sciences", 
  "language": "tur", 
  "title": "Global Surveillance Networks and International Health Regulations\u200e in the \u200eEarly \u200eDetection and Control of Epidemics\u200e", 
  "issued": {
    "date-parts": [
      [
        2022, 
        1, 
        18
      ]
    ]
  }, 
  "abstract": "<p><strong>&Ouml;zet</strong></p>\n\n<p>Bula\u015f\u0131c\u0131 hastal\u0131k tehditlerine kar\u015f\u0131 bir siper olmak &uuml;zere d&uuml;nyada ayr\u0131nt\u0131l\u0131 bir k&uuml;resel sa\u011fl\u0131k sistemi geli\u015ftirilmi\u015ftir. Sistem, farkl\u0131 payda\u015flara hizmet eden &ccedil;e\u015fitli resmi ve gayri resmi kurulu\u015f a\u011flar\u0131ndan olu\u015fur. Bu a\u011f farkl\u0131 ama&ccedil;lara, y&ouml;ntemlere, kaynaklara ve hesap verebilirli\u011fe sahip; farkl\u0131 etki alanlar\u0131nda (yerel, ulusal, b&ouml;lgesel veya k&uuml;resel d&uuml;zeyde) faaliyet g&ouml;steren kamu kurulu\u015flar\u0131, k&acirc;r ama&ccedil;l\u0131 ve k&acirc;r amac\u0131 g&uuml;tmeyen &ouml;zel sekt&ouml;r kurulu\u015flar\u0131ndan olu\u015fmaktad\u0131r. Mevcut k&uuml;resel sa\u011fl\u0131k sistemi, insan sa\u011fl\u0131\u011f\u0131n\u0131 korumak ve iyile\u015ftirmek i&ccedil;in &ouml;nemli &ccedil;al\u0131\u015fmalar ger&ccedil;ekle\u015ftirmi\u015ftir. Bununla birlikte, d&uuml;nya uzun s&uuml;redir devam eden ve yeni ortaya &ccedil;\u0131kan veya yeniden &ouml;nem kazanan bula\u015f\u0131c\u0131 hastal\u0131k tehditleriyle kar\u015f\u0131 kar\u015f\u0131ya kalmaya devam etmektedir. Bu tehditler, ciddiyet durumu ve risk ihtimalleri a&ccedil;\u0131s\u0131ndan b&uuml;y&uuml;k farkl\u0131l\u0131klar g&ouml;stermekte ve her biri i&ccedil;in ayr\u0131 m&uuml;cadele dinamikleri gerekmektedir. Ayr\u0131ca, hastal\u0131k ve &ouml;l&uuml;m oranlar\u0131nda oldu\u011fu gibi, bu enfeksiyonlar\u0131n farkl\u0131la\u015fan bir dizi karma\u015f\u0131k sosyal ve ekonomik etkileri ve sonu&ccedil;lar\u0131 da s&ouml;z konusudur. Mevcut haliyle k&uuml;resel sa\u011fl\u0131k sisteminin halihaz\u0131rdaki bir dizi bula\u015f\u0131c\u0131 hastal\u0131k tehdidine kar\u015f\u0131 etkili koruma sa\u011flay\u0131p sa\u011flayamayaca\u011f\u0131 tart\u0131\u015f\u0131lmaktad\u0131r. Son zamanlarda ortaya &ccedil;\u0131kan Ebola, Zika, dang hummas\u0131, \u015eiddetli Akut Solunum Sendromu (SARS), Orta Do\u011fu Solunum Sendromu (MERS), COVID-19, grip salg\u0131nlar\u0131 ve artan antimikrobiyal diren&ccedil; tehdidi nedeniyle bu sistem ciddi s\u0131navlar vermektedir. Zay\u0131f sa\u011fl\u0131k sistemleri, \u015fehirle\u015fme, k&uuml;reselle\u015fme, iklim de\u011fi\u015fikli\u011fi, i&ccedil; sava\u015flar ve &ccedil;at\u0131\u015fmalar ve insan ve hayvan pop&uuml;lasyonlar\u0131 aras\u0131nda patojen bula\u015fmas\u0131n\u0131n de\u011fi\u015fen do\u011fas\u0131, baz\u0131 riskli b&ouml;lgelerdeki kontrols&uuml;z n&uuml;fus art\u0131\u015f\u0131 mevcut endi\u015feleri g&uuml;n ge&ccedil;tik&ccedil;e daha da art\u0131rmaktad\u0131r. Laboratuvar kazalar\u0131ndan veya kas\u0131tl\u0131 biyolojik sald\u0131r\u0131lardan kaynaklanan insan kaynakl\u0131 salg\u0131nlar ise di\u011fer potansiyel riskler olarak de\u011ferlendirilmekte ve uluslararas\u0131 i\u015f birli\u011fi ve koordinasyonu &ouml;nemli k\u0131lmaktad\u0131r.&nbsp;Uluslararas\u0131 epidemiyolojik s&uuml;rveyans&nbsp;&lrm;sistemleri ve uluslararas\u0131 sa\u011fl\u0131k t&uuml;z&uuml;\u011f&uuml; d&uuml;zenlemeleri bula\u015f\u0131c\u0131 hastal\u0131klar\u0131n salg\u0131n boyutlar\u0131na&nbsp;&lrm;ula\u015fmas\u0131n\u0131 &ouml;nlemede ve k&uuml;resel riskleri en aza indirgemede kritik &ouml;nem ta\u015f\u0131yan erken m&uuml;dahale uygulamalar\u0131 ve ara&ccedil;lar\u0131 olarak etki alanlar\u0131n\u0131 geni\u015fletirken, erken uyar\u0131 s&uuml;rveyans sistemlerinin etkinli\u011fi yeni teknolojilerin de kullan\u0131lmas\u0131 ile geli\u015ftirilmektedir&lrm;&lrm;.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Abstract</strong></p>\n\n<p>An elaborate global health system has been developed around the world as a bulwark against&nbsp;&lrm;infectious disease threats. The system consists of various networks of formal and informal organizations serving different stakeholders. This network has different purposes, methods, resources and accountability; it consists of public institutions operating in different fields of influence (at local, national, regional or global level), profit-oriented and non-profit private sector organizations.&nbsp;The current global health system has done important work to protect and improve human health. However, the world continues to face long-standing and emerging or re-emerging infectious disease threats.&nbsp;These threats vary greatly in severity and probability of risk, and each requires separate struggle dynamics. In addition, as with morbidity and mortality rates, these infections have many complex social and economic effects and consequences that differ.&nbsp;&lrm;It is discussed whether the global health system with its current situation can provide effective protection against a number of communicable disease threats.&nbsp;Due to the recent emerging threats of Ebola, Zika, dengue fever, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), COVID-19, and influenza epidemics, and the increasing threat of antimicrobial resistance, this system is being put to the test.&nbsp;Weak health systems, urbanization, globalization, climate change, civil wars and conflicts, and the changing nature of pathogen transmission between human and animal populations, uncontrolled population growth in some risk areas aggravate current concerns.&nbsp;&quot;Human-induced outbreaks resulting from laboratory accidents&quot; or deliberate biological attacks are considered as other potential risks, making international cooperation and coordination important. International epidemiological surveillance systems and international health regulation coverage are expanding their scope as early intervention practices and tools that are critical in preventing infectious diseases from reaching epidemic levels and minimizing global risks. Also, the effectiveness of early warning surveillance systems is being improved with the use of new technologies&lrm;&lrm;.</p>", 
  "author": [
    {
      "family": "G\u00fcner, \u00d6ner"
    }
  ], 
  "page": "69-78", 
  "volume": "1", 
  "type": "article-journal", 
  "issue": "2", 
  "id": "5876878"
}
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