Journal article Open Access

Sex differences: a resultant of an evolutionary pressure?

Della Torre, Sara; Maggi, Adriana

Spurred by current research policy we are witnessing a significant growth in the number of studies that observe and describe sexual diversities in human physiology and a sex prevalence in a large number of pathologies. Yet, we are far from the comprehension of the mechanisms underpinning these differences that are the result of a long evolutionary history. This Essay is meant to underline female reproductive function as a driver for the positive selection of the specific physiological features that explain male and female differential susceptibility to diseases and metabolic disturbances, in particular. A clear understanding of the causes underlying sexual dimorphisms in the physio-pathology is crucial for personalized medicine.

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