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Digital Contact Tracing: Overview of technological solutions for the fight against pandemics

Laoudias, Christos


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  <identifier identifierType="DOI">10.5281/zenodo.5767230</identifier>
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    <creator>
      <creatorName>Laoudias, Christos</creatorName>
      <givenName>Christos</givenName>
      <familyName>Laoudias</familyName>
      <nameIdentifier nameIdentifierScheme="ORCID" schemeURI="http://orcid.org/">0000-0002-2907-7488</nameIdentifier>
      <affiliation>KIOS Center of Excellence, University of Cyprus</affiliation>
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  <titles>
    <title>Digital Contact Tracing: Overview of technological solutions for the fight against pandemics</title>
  </titles>
  <publisher>Zenodo</publisher>
  <publicationYear>2021</publicationYear>
  <dates>
    <date dateType="Issued">2021-12-01</date>
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  <resourceType resourceTypeGeneral="Audiovisual"/>
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  <rightsList>
    <rights rightsURI="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</rights>
    <rights rightsURI="info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess">Open Access</rights>
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  <descriptions>
    <description descriptionType="Abstract">&lt;p&gt;In late 2019, Covid-19 emerged and was soon declared a pandemic causing until now a massive health disruption and a huge impact on the global economy. Several governments around the world are still forced to take containment measures to curb the spread of the virus including partial or full lockdowns. At the same time, they rely heavily on human resources to perform manual Contact Tracing (CT) for alerting known contacts of the confirmed cases and breaking the infection chains early enough. However, CT does not scale well when the cases increase exponentially, due to the limited capacity of national public health authorities, and cannot identify possible &lt;em&gt;hidden&lt;/em&gt; infections due to random encounters with strangers in crowded spaces such as restaurants, bars, theaters, public transportation, etc. To this end, Digital Contact Tracing (DCT) is becoming increasingly popular to enhance and empower CT, enabling automatic and faster identification and notification of exposed users. This presentation will first overview the different generations of DCT solutions from the privacy-invasive use of subscriber location data provided by cellular operators, to location monitoring mobile apps on GPS-equipped smartphones, to privacy-preserving mobile apps based on &lt;em&gt;proximity&lt;/em&gt; sensing through Bluetooth. It will discuss the findings of recent studies with regards to the effectiveness of DCT and debate whether it has been &amp;ndash; or has the potential to become &amp;ndash; a game changer. Finally, it will outline the latest developments and trends in this active research field that are of interest to the IPIN community including &lt;em&gt;presence&lt;/em&gt; tracing that aims to notify anonymously those users that have been in the same place (especially indoors) with an infected user, without necessarily satisfying the proximity constraint.&lt;/p&gt;</description>
    <description descriptionType="Other">Keynote @ 2021 International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation.</description>
  </descriptions>
  <fundingReferences>
    <fundingReference>
      <funderName>European Commission</funderName>
      <funderIdentifier funderIdentifierType="Crossref Funder ID">10.13039/100010661</funderIdentifier>
      <awardNumber awardURI="info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/739551/">739551</awardNumber>
      <awardTitle>KIOS Research and Innovation Centre of Excellence</awardTitle>
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