Journal article Open Access
Among ultrathin monoelemental two-dimensional (2D) materials, bismuthene, the single layer of heavier group-VΑ element bismuth (Bi), has been predicted to have large non trivial gap. Here, we demonstrate the growth of Bi films by molecular beam epitaxy on 2D-HfTe2 template. At the initial stage of Bi deposition (1–2 bilayers, BL), both the pseudocubic Bi(110) and the hexagonal Bi(111) phases are formed. When reaching 3 BL Bi, a transformation to pure hexagonal Bi(111) occurs. The electronic band structure of 3 BL Bi(111) films was measured by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy showing very good matching with the density functional theory band structure calculations of 3 BL free standing Bi(111). The grown Bi(111) thin film was capped with a protective Al2O3 layer and its stability under ambient conditions, necessary for practical applications and device fabrication, was confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy.