Journal article Open Access

The Association between Vitamin D and Zinc Status with the Disease Onset and Progression of Clinical Symptoms among Outpatients Infected with COVID-19 and Non-Infected Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study

Sahar Golabi; Maryam Adelipour; Sara Mobarak; Maghsud Piri; Maryam Seyedtabib; Reza Bagheri; Katsuhiko Suzuki; Damoon Ashtari Larki; Fatemeh Maghsoudi; Mahshid Naghashpour


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    <subfield code="u">Department of Biochemistry, School of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Maryam Adelipour</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Abadan University of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Abadan University of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Maryam Seyedtabib</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa, 359-1192, Japan</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Katsuhiko Suzuki</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Damoon Ashtari Larki</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Abadan University of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Fatemeh Maghsoudi</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Abadan University of Medical Sciences, Abadan,</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">The Association between Vitamin D and Zinc Status with the Disease Onset and Progression of Clinical Symptoms among Outpatients Infected with COVID-19 and Non-Infected Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Background: &lt;/em&gt;Vitamin D and zinc are important components of nutritional immunity. This study compared the serum concentrations of vitamin D and zinc in COVID-19 outpatients with those of non-infected participants. Clinical symptoms and associations with vitamin D and zinc status were also examined. &lt;em&gt;Methods: &lt;/em&gt;A checklist and laboratory examination were applied to collect data in a health service center-based descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study conducted on 53 infected outpatients with COVID-19 and 53 non-infected participants of both sexes. &lt;em&gt;Results: &lt;/em&gt;Lower serum concentration of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were observed in patients with moderate illness (18.9&amp;plusmn;11.5 ng/mL) than in patients with asymptomatic or mild illness (29.2&amp;plusmn;18.3 ng/mL) (p=0.054). Also, infected patients (100.6&amp;plusmn;17.8 &amp;micro;g/dL) showed lower serum concentration of zinc than non-infected participants (113.8&amp;plusmn;13.4 &amp;micro;g/dL) (p=0.013). Patients with normal and insufficient vitamin D status at the time of admission had decreased odds ratios of general symptoms of COVID-19 (odds ratio, 0.19; p&amp;le;0.001 for normal and odds ratio, 0.3; p=0.007 for insufficient vitamin D status) compared to patients with vitamin D deficiency. &lt;em&gt;Conclusion: &lt;/em&gt;This study revealed the importance of 25(OH)D measurement as a relatively easy option to predict the progression of general and pulmonary symptoms. Also, this study showed that a poor zinc status of the outpatients might affect the disease onset of COVID-19.&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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