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The Association between Vitamin D and Zinc Status with the Disease Onset and Progression of Clinical Symptoms among Outpatients Infected with COVID-19 and Non-Infected Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study

Sahar Golabi; Maryam Adelipour; Sara Mobarak; Maghsud Piri; Maryam Seyedtabib; Reza Bagheri; Katsuhiko Suzuki; Damoon Ashtari Larki; Fatemeh Maghsoudi; Mahshid Naghashpour


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{
  "publisher": "Zenodo", 
  "DOI": "10.5281/zenodo.5266352", 
  "author": [
    {
      "family": "Sahar Golabi"
    }, 
    {
      "family": "Maryam Adelipour"
    }, 
    {
      "family": "Sara Mobarak"
    }, 
    {
      "family": "Maghsud Piri"
    }, 
    {
      "family": "Maryam Seyedtabib"
    }, 
    {
      "family": "Reza Bagheri"
    }, 
    {
      "family": "Katsuhiko Suzuki"
    }, 
    {
      "family": "Damoon Ashtari Larki"
    }, 
    {
      "family": "Fatemeh Maghsoudi"
    }, 
    {
      "family": "Mahshid Naghashpour"
    }
  ], 
  "issued": {
    "date-parts": [
      [
        2021, 
        8, 
        26
      ]
    ]
  }, 
  "abstract": "<p><em>Background: </em>Vitamin D and zinc are important components of nutritional immunity. This study compared the serum concentrations of vitamin D and zinc in COVID-19 outpatients with those of non-infected participants. Clinical symptoms and associations with vitamin D and zinc status were also examined. <em>Methods: </em>A checklist and laboratory examination were applied to collect data in a health service center-based descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study conducted on 53 infected outpatients with COVID-19 and 53 non-infected participants of both sexes. <em>Results: </em>Lower serum concentration of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were observed in patients with moderate illness (18.9&plusmn;11.5 ng/mL) than in patients with asymptomatic or mild illness (29.2&plusmn;18.3 ng/mL) (p=0.054). Also, infected patients (100.6&plusmn;17.8 &micro;g/dL) showed lower serum concentration of zinc than non-infected participants (113.8&plusmn;13.4 &micro;g/dL) (p=0.013). Patients with normal and insufficient vitamin D status at the time of admission had decreased odds ratios of general symptoms of COVID-19 (odds ratio, 0.19; p&le;0.001 for normal and odds ratio, 0.3; p=0.007 for insufficient vitamin D status) compared to patients with vitamin D deficiency. <em>Conclusion: </em>This study revealed the importance of 25(OH)D measurement as a relatively easy option to predict the progression of general and pulmonary symptoms. Also, this study showed that a poor zinc status of the outpatients might affect the disease onset of COVID-19.</p>", 
  "title": "The Association between Vitamin D and Zinc Status with the Disease Onset and Progression of Clinical Symptoms among Outpatients Infected with COVID-19 and Non-Infected Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study", 
  "type": "article-journal", 
  "id": "5266352"
}
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