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The Origins of SARS-CoV-2: A Critical Review

Holmes, Edward C; Goldstein, Stephen A; Rasmussen, Angela L; Robertson, David L; Crits-Christoph, Alexander; Wertheim, Joel O; Anthony, Simon J; Barclay, Wendy S; Boni, Maciej F; Doherty, Peter C; Farrar, Jeremy; Geoghegan, Jemma L; Jiang, Xiaowei; Leibowitz, Julian L; Neil, Stuart J D; Skern, Tim; Weiss, Susan R; Worobey, Michael; Andersen, Kristian G; Garry, Robert F; Rambaut, Andrew


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{
  "description": "<p>The Origins of SARS-CoV-2: A Critical Review</p>\n\n<p>Holmes et al.</p>\n\n<p>Published online: 18-Aug-2021,&nbsp;Cell,&nbsp;<a href=\"https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.08.017\">https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.08.017</a></p>\n\n<p>Since the first reports of a novel SARS-like coronavirus in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, there has been intense interest in understanding how SARS-CoV-2 emerged in the human population. Recent debate has coalesced around two competing ideas: a &ldquo;laboratory escape&rdquo; scenario and zoonotic emergence. Here, we critically review the current scientific evidence that may help clarify the origin of SARS-CoV-2.</p>\n\n<p>Computer readable versions of data tables, SVG maps, and acknowledgements of sequence data used are available from:</p>\n\n<p>https://github.com/sars-cov-2-origins/critical-review</p>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>", 
  "license": "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode", 
  "creator": [
    {
      "affiliation": "School of Life and Environmental Sciences and School of Medical Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Holmes, Edward C"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Goldstein, Stephen A"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E3, Canada", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Rasmussen, Angela L"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, G61 1QH, UK", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Robertson, David L"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Crits-Christoph, Alexander"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Wertheim, Joel O"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of California Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616, USA", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Anthony, Simon J"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Department of Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, W2 1PG, UK", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Barclay, Wendy S"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Boni, Maciej F"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne at the Doherty Institute, 792 Elizabeth St, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Doherty, Peter C"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "The Wellcome Trust, London, NW1 2BE, UK", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Farrar, Jeremy"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Institute of Environmental Science and Research, Wellington, New Zealand", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Geoghegan, Jemma L"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Department of Biological Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University (XJTLU), Suzhou, China", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Jiang, Xiaowei"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Department of Microbial Pathogenesis and Immunology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77807, USA", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Leibowitz, Julian L"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Department of Infectious Diseases, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, London SE1 9RT, UK", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Neil, Stuart J D"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Max Perutz Labs, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna Biocenter, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9/3, A-1030 Vienna, Austria", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Skern, Tim"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Weiss, Susan R"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Worobey, Michael"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Andersen, Kristian G"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Garry, Robert F"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 FL, UK", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Rambaut, Andrew"
    }
  ], 
  "headline": "The Origins of SARS-CoV-2: A Critical Review", 
  "image": "https://zenodo.org/static/img/logos/zenodo-gradient-round.svg", 
  "datePublished": "2021-08-18", 
  "url": "https://zenodo.org/record/5244404", 
  "version": "Authors' final version", 
  "keywords": [
    "sars-cov-2", 
    "covid-19", 
    "origins", 
    "zoonosis"
  ], 
  "@context": "https://schema.org/", 
  "identifier": "https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5244404", 
  "@id": "https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5244404", 
  "@type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
  "name": "The Origins of SARS-CoV-2: A Critical Review"
}
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