Journal article Open Access

The Origins of SARS-CoV-2: A Critical Review

Holmes, Edward C; Goldstein, Stephen A; Rasmussen, Angela L; Robertson, David L; Crits-Christoph, Alexander; Wertheim, Joel O; Anthony, Simon J; Barclay, Wendy S; Boni, Maciej F; Doherty, Peter C; Farrar, Jeremy; Geoghegan, Jemma L; Jiang, Xiaowei; Leibowitz, Julian L; Neil, Stuart J D; Skern, Tim; Weiss, Susan R; Worobey, Michael; Andersen, Kristian G; Garry, Robert F; Rambaut, Andrew


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    "description": "<p>The Origins of SARS-CoV-2: A Critical Review</p>\n\n<p>Holmes et al.</p>\n\n<p>Published online: 18-Aug-2021,&nbsp;Cell,&nbsp;<a href=\"https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.08.017\">https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.08.017</a></p>\n\n<p>Since the first reports of a novel SARS-like coronavirus in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, there has been intense interest in understanding how SARS-CoV-2 emerged in the human population. Recent debate has coalesced around two competing ideas: a &ldquo;laboratory escape&rdquo; scenario and zoonotic emergence. Here, we critically review the current scientific evidence that may help clarify the origin of SARS-CoV-2.</p>\n\n<p>Computer readable versions of data tables, SVG maps, and acknowledgements of sequence data used are available from:</p>\n\n<p>https://github.com/sars-cov-2-origins/critical-review</p>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>", 
    "license": {
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    "title": "The Origins of SARS-CoV-2: A Critical Review", 
    "notes": "Authors' final peer-reviewed version. Published as: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.08.017", 
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    "keywords": [
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    "publication_date": "2021-08-18", 
    "creators": [
      {
        "affiliation": "School of Life and Environmental Sciences and School of Medical Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia", 
        "name": "Holmes, Edward C"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA", 
        "name": "Goldstein, Stephen A"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E3, Canada", 
        "name": "Rasmussen, Angela L"
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        "affiliation": "MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, G61 1QH, UK", 
        "name": "Robertson, David L"
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        "affiliation": "Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA", 
        "name": "Crits-Christoph, Alexander"
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        "affiliation": "Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA", 
        "name": "Wertheim, Joel O"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of California Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616, USA", 
        "name": "Anthony, Simon J"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Department of Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, W2 1PG, UK", 
        "name": "Barclay, Wendy S"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA", 
        "name": "Boni, Maciej F"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne at the Doherty Institute, 792 Elizabeth St, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia", 
        "name": "Doherty, Peter C"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "The Wellcome Trust, London, NW1 2BE, UK", 
        "name": "Farrar, Jeremy"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Institute of Environmental Science and Research, Wellington, New Zealand", 
        "name": "Geoghegan, Jemma L"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Department of Biological Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University (XJTLU), Suzhou, China", 
        "name": "Jiang, Xiaowei"
      }, 
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        "affiliation": "Department of Microbial Pathogenesis and Immunology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77807, USA", 
        "name": "Leibowitz, Julian L"
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        "affiliation": "Department of Infectious Diseases, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, London SE1 9RT, UK", 
        "name": "Neil, Stuart J D"
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        "affiliation": "Max Perutz Labs, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna Biocenter, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9/3, A-1030 Vienna, Austria", 
        "name": "Skern, Tim"
      }, 
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        "affiliation": "Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA", 
        "name": "Weiss, Susan R"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA", 
        "name": "Worobey, Michael"
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        "affiliation": "Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA", 
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        "affiliation": "Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA", 
        "name": "Garry, Robert F"
      }, 
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        "affiliation": "Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 FL, UK", 
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