Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and lockdown period may induce an impairment in quality of life (QoL), disruption in treatment (DIT), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in chronic neurological diseases (CNDs). To reach this information, a multicenter, cross-sectional study (COVQoL-CND) was planned. Parkinson's disease (PD), headache (HA), multiple sclerosis (MS), epilepsy (EP), polyneuropathy (PNP), and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) were selected as the CND. Methods: The COVQoL-CND study includes demographic data, the World Health Organization Quality of Life short form (WHOQOL-BREF), and Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) forms. Results: The mean age of a total of 577 patients was 49 ± 17 (19–87 years), and the ratio of female/male was 352/225. The mean age of patients with PD, HA, MS, EP, PNP, and CVD were 65 ± 11, 39 ± 12, 38 ± 10, 47 ± 17, 61 ± 12, and 60 ± 15 years, respectively. The IES-R scores were found to be higher in the younger group, those with comorbid disease, contacted with COVID-19 patients, or diagnosed with COVID-19. In the group with a high IES-R score, the rate of DIT was found to be high. IES-R scores were negatively correlated with QoL. IES-R total scores were found highest in the CVD group and lowest in the PD group. The ratio of DIT was found highest in the PNP group and the lowest in the EP group. Contact with COVID-19 patients was high in the EP and HA group. Conclusions: The results of the COVQoL-CND study showed that lockdown causes posttraumatic stress and deterioration in the QoL in CND.