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Influences of Planning Policies on Community Shaping in China: From Past to Present

Liu, Jian

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  "inLanguage": {
    "alternateName": "eng", 
    "@type": "Language", 
    "name": "English"
  "description": "<p>In China, as in other countries of the world, communities, which are often considered as self-governing social organizations, are shaped&nbsp;and influenced by many factors. Different from other studies, this paper approaches the issue of community shaping from a planning perspective&nbsp;<br>\nand tries to answer the questions of how Chinese communities have been physically shaped throughout history and what influences the planning&nbsp;policies have on communities&rsquo; scales, forms, and functions. Hereby, the planning policies concern not only the spatial organization, but also the&nbsp;<br>\nsocial management of communities. The research is elaborated chronologically, dividing the history of community development in China roughly&nbsp;into four periods according to socio-economic development trends, planning objectives, and community characters. The narration is mainly based&nbsp;<br>\non literature work and case studies, with a focus on the social and spatial characters of urban communities. The paper concludes that before the&nbsp;modernization of China, Chinese communities were mainly shaped into a gated Li-Fang pattern by traditional city building principles, in accordance with the regulations on social management, in spite of the terminological changes in different dynasties and the opening of gated communities&nbsp;during certain dynasties. In the thirty years of the planned economy, Chinese communities were mainly shaped into inward Danwei (or work unit)&nbsp;<br>\ncommunities of perimeter blocks by the urban planning institution, which was regarded as a technical tool of the planned socio-economic development to support national industrialization. In the next thirty years of economic transition, Chinese communities were further shaped into gated&nbsp;<br>\ncommodity housing communities of super blocks under the influence of reforms and the guidance of urban planning regulations. In the period of&nbsp;new urbanization, Chinese communities face the challenge of transforming towards a dense grid, with narrow streets and small blocks, and promoting public engagement in community building, in view of the requirements for quality-oriented development.</p>", 
  "license": "", 
  "creator": [
      "affiliation": "Tenured Associate Professor, Department of Urban Planning &  Design, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing, P. R. China", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Liu, Jian"
  "headline": "Influences of Planning Policies on Community Shaping in China: From Past to Present", 
  "image": "", 
  "datePublished": "2019-12-15", 
  "url": "", 
  "keywords": [
    "community shaping; planning policy; social management; spatial organization; Chinese cities"
  "@context": "", 
  "identifier": "", 
  "@id": "", 
  "@type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
  "name": "Influences of Planning Policies on Community Shaping in China: From Past to Present"
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