Journal article Open Access

JavaScript: The First 20 Years

Wirfs-Brock, Allen; Eich, Brendan

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  "inLanguage": {
    "alternateName": "eng", 
    "@type": "Language", 
    "name": "English"
  "description": "<p>How a sidekick scripting language for Java, created at Netscape in a ten-day hack, ships first as a de facto Web standard and eventually becomes the world&rsquo;s most widely used programming language. This paper tells the story of the creation, design, evolution, and standardization of the JavaScript language over the period of 1995&ndash;2015. But the story is not only about the technical details of the language. It is also the story of how people and organizations competed and collaborated to shape the JavaScript language which dominates the Web of 2020.</p>", 
  "license": "", 
  "creator": [
      "affiliation": "Wirfs-Brock Associates, Inc", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Wirfs-Brock, Allen"
      "affiliation": "Brave Software, Inc.", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Eich, Brendan"
  "headline": "JavaScript: The First 20 Years", 
  "image": "", 
  "datePublished": "2020-06-12", 
  "url": "", 
  "version": "Corrected March 2021", 
  "@type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
  "keywords": [
    "JavaScript, ECMAScript, Standards, Web browsers, Browser game theory,  History of programming language"
  "@context": "", 
  "identifier": "", 
  "@id": "", 
  "workFeatured": {
    "alternateName": "HOPL-IV", 
    "@type": "Event", 
    "name": "HOPL IV: History of Programming Languages"
  "name": "JavaScript: The First 20 Years"
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