Journal article Open Access
Kyung-Shick Choi; Seong-Sik Lee; Jin Ree Lee
Mobile phones are increasingly developing into a technology-based device that everyone is dependent on. While previous research has been extensive in examining different theoretical explanations for interpreting juvenile delinquency, research on mobile induced online sexual harassment among juvenile populations have been rather scarce and limited. As a result of this dearth, the present study employs a theoretical approach in rationalizing why juveniles commit online sexual harassment using their mobile phones. Elements from both social learning and self-control theories are used to assess the causes for online sexual harassment using mobile phones. By conducting binomial logistic regression analyses, this study finds that both social learning and low self-control components are salient factors in determining the causes of juvenile sexual harassment in cyberspace. From these findings, policies will be introduced to address the major causes of juvenile online sexual harassment using mobile phones.
Akers, R. L. (1985). Deviant behavior: A social learning approach (3rd ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth. Akers, R. L., & Sellers, C. S. (2004). Criminological theories: Introduction, evaluation, and application (4th ed.). Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing. Allahverdipour, H., Hidarnia, A., Kazamnegad, A., Shafii, F., Fallah, P., & Emami, A. (2006). The status of self-control and its relation to drug abuse-related behaviors among Iranian male high school students. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 34(4), 413-423. Anwar, S., & Loughran, T.A. (2011). Testing a Bayesian learning theory of deterrence among serious juvenile offenders. Criminology, 49(3), 667-698. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.2011.00233.x. Brauer, J. R. (2009).Testing social learning theory using reinforcement's residue: A multilevel analysis of self-reported theft and marijuana use in the national youth survey. Criminology, 47(3), 929-970. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.2009.00164.x. Brenner, S.W. &Koops, B. (2004). Approaches to cybercrime jurisdiction. Journal of High Technology Law, 4(1), 1-46. Retrieved from http://www.jhtl.org/docs/pdf/JHTL_Brenner_Koops_Article1.pdf. Cernkovich, S. A. & Giordano, P.C. (1992).School bonding, race, and delinquency. Criminology, 30(2), 261-291. Chapple, C. L. (2005). Self-control, peer relations, and delinquency. Justice Quarterly, 22(1), 89-106. doi:10.1080/0741882042000333654. Choi, K. (2008). Computer crime victimization and integrated theory: An empirical assessment. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 2(1), 308-333. Choi, K. (2015). Cybercriminology and digital investigation. El Paso: LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC. Clinton, C., & Steyer, J. P. (2012, May 21). Is the internet hurting children? In CNN. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2012/05/21/opinion/clinton-steyer-internet-kids/index.html. Cox Communication in Partnership with National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. (2009, May). Teen online and wireless safety survey: Cyberbullying, sexting, and parental controls. Retrieved from http://ww2.cox.com/wcm/en/aboutus/datasheet/takecharge/2009-teen-survey.pdf?campcode=takecharge-research-link_2009-teen-survey_0511. Conner, B. T., Stein, J. A., & Longshore, D. (2009). Examining self-control as a multidimensional predictor of crime and drug use in adolescents with criminal histories. Journal Of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 36(2), 137-149. doi:10.1007/s11414-008-9121-7. Evans, D. T., Cullen, F. T., Burton Jr., V. S., Dunaway, G. R., & Benson, M. L. (1997). The social consequences of self-control: Testing the general theory of crime. Criminology, 35(3), 475-504. Gottfredson, D. (1998). School-based crime prevention. In L. W. Sherman, D. C. Gottfredson, D. MacKenzie, J. Eck, P. Reuter, & S. Bushway. (Eds.), Preventing crime: What works, what doesn't, what's promising: A report to the United States Congress. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice. Gottfredson, M., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Hirschi, T., & Gottfredson, M. (1993). Commentary: Testing the general theory of crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 30, 47-54. Grasmick, H.G., Tittle, C. R., Bursik, R. J., & Arneklev, B. J. (1993). Testing the core empirical implications of Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory of crime. Journal of Research In Crime & Delinquency, 30(1), 5-29. Grenoble, R. (2012, October 11) .Amanda Todd: Bullied Canadian teen commits suicide after prolonged battle online and in school. In Huff Post Crime. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/10/11/amanda-todd-suicide-bullying_n_1959909.html?utm_hp_ref=amanda-todd. Hart, C. O., & Mueller, C. E. (2013). School delinquency and social bond factors: Exploring gendered differences among a national sample of 10th graders. Psychology In The Schools, 50(2), 116-133. doi:10.1002/pits.21662. Hay, C., & Forrest, W. (2008). Self-control theory and the concept of opportunity: The case for a more systematic union. Criminology,46(4), 1039-1072. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.2008.00135.x. Higgins, G. E., Wilson, A. L., & Fell, B. D. (2005). An application of deterrence theory to software piracy. Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture, 12(3), 166-184. Higgins, G. E. (2005). Can low self-control help with the understanding of the software piracy problem?. Deviant Behavior, 26(1), 1-24. doi:10.1080/01639620490497947. Higgins, G. E. (2007). Digital piracy, self-control theory, and rational choice: An examination of the role of values. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 1(1), 33-55. Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Lifetime cyberbullying victimization and offending rates. In Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.cyberbullying.us/research.php. Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2007). Offline consequences of online victimization: School violence and delinquency. Journal Of School Violence, 6(3), 89-112. Holt, T. J., Blevins, K. R., & Burkert, N. (2010). Considering the pedophile subculture online. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 22(1), 3-24. Holt, T. J., Bossler, A. M., & May, D. C. (2011). Low self-control, deviant peer associations, and juvenile cyberdeviance. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 37(3), 378-395. doi:10.1007/s12103-011-9117-3. Hussain, R. (2011). Cyberspace task force for child protection. International Journal of Academic Research, 3(2), 1001-1007. Ingram, J. R., & Hinduja, S. (2008). Neutralizing music piracy: An empirical examination. Deviant Behavior, 29(4), 334-366. doi:10.1080/01639620701588131. Jenson, G. F., Erickson, M. L., & Gibbs, J. P. (1978). Perceived risk of punishment and self-reported delinquency. Social Forces, 57(1), 57-78. doi: 10.1093/sf/57.1.57. John, Y. J., & Gorman, G. E. (2002). Internet use in South Korea. Online Information Review, 26(5), 335-344. LaGrange, T. C., & Silverman, R. A. (1999). Low self-control and opportunity: Testing the general theory of crime as an explanation for gender differences in delinquency. Criminology, 37(1), 41-72. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1999.tb00479.x. Leading Industries. (2013). In Korea.net: Gateway to Korea. Retrieved from http://www.korea.net/AboutKorea/Economy/Leading-Industries. Lee, S. (2011). Testing both Risk and Control Factors of Juvenile Delinquency in Offline, Internet, and Cell Phone Media. Korean Criminological Review, 85, 112-135. Matsueda, R. L. (1982). Testing control theory and differential association: A causal model approach. American Sociological Review, 47, 489-504. Matsueda, R. L., & Heimer, K. (1987). Race, family structure, and delinquency: A test of differential association and social control theories. American Sociological Review, 52(6), 826-840. Mesch, G. S. (2009). Parental mediation, online activities, and cyberbullying. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12(4), 387-393. Mitchell, K. J., Wolak, J., & Finkelhor, D. (2008). Are blogs putting youth at risk for online sexual solicitation or harassment? Child Abuse & Neglect, 32(2), 273-294. Moon, B., Blurton, D., & McCluskey, J.D. (2008). General strain theory and delinquency. Crime & Delinquency, 54(4), 582-613. doi:10.1177/0011128707301627. Moon, B., McCluskey, J. D., & McCluskey, C. P. (2010). A general theory of crime and computer crime: An empirical test. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38, 767-772. doi:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2010.05.003. Moon, B., Morash, M., & McCluskey, J. D. (2012). General strain theory and school bullying: An empirical test in South Korea. Crime & Delinquency, 58(6), 827-855. doi:10.1177/0011128710364809. Nagin, D. S., & Paternoster, R. (1993). Enduring individual differences and rational choice theories of crime. Law & Society Review, 27(3), 467-496. National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. (2013). Cellphones. In NetSmartz Workshop. Retrieved from http://www.netsmartz.org/CellPhones. Pratt, T. C., Cullen, F. T., Sellers, C. S., Winfree, T. L., Madensen, T. D., Daigle, L. E., Fearn, N. E., & Gau, J. M. (2010). The empirical status of social learning theory: A meta-analysis. Justice Quarterly, 27(6), 765-802. doi:10.1080/07418820903379610. Skinner, W. F., & Fream, A. M. (1997). A social learning theory analysis of computer crime among college students. Journal of Research in Crime & Delinquency, 34(4), 495-518. Soo, K., Ainsaar, M., & Kalmus, V. (2012). Behind the curtains of e-state: Determinants of online sexual harassment among Estonian children. Studies of Transnation States and Societies, 4(2), 35-48. Stack, S., Wasserman, I., & Kern, R. (2004). Adult social bonds and use of internet pornography. Social Science Quarterly (Blackwell Publishing Limited), 85(1), 75-88. doi:10.1111/j.0038-4941.2004.08501006.x. The I-Safe Foundation. (2013). In I-Safe. Retrieved from http://isafe.org/wp/?page_id=211. Wiatrowski, M. D., Griswold, D. B., & Roberts, M. K. (1981). Social control theory and delinquency. American Sociological Review, 46(5), 525-541. Wolak, J., Mitchell, K. J., & Finkelhor, D. (2006). Online Victimization of Youth: Five Years Later. Yar, M. (2005).Computer hacking: Just another case of juvenile delinquency?. Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 44(4), 387-399. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2311.2005.00383.x.