Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants: Exploring Online Harassment Victimization by Generational Age
Logan Hans Stickel
This exploratory study of online harassment in adult populations uses the sociological concept of generational age to examine theoretical contentions related to the formative effects of early life experiences with computer-mediation technologies on victimization. Utilizing an adaptive online survey, a total of 236 responses were collected through social networking sampling on Facebook and LinkedIn, measuring perceptions of reported incidents and routine online interactions to understand age-based victimization factors. Data were analyzed with a binary generational age macro variable to thematize measures, classifying respondents born on or after 1985 as digital natives and those prior as digital immigrants. Although statistical associative testing revealed that there was little generational division in most measured concepts, psychological stress levels and social networking site use frequency were demonstrated to be significantly related and have verifiable corollaries. Digital immigrants were more likely to report high psychological stress levels in victimizations and less frequent daily usage of social networking than digital natives, suggesting communicational interpretations more defined by proximal, face-to-face messaging. Nevertheless, although there are limitations given the exploratory nature of this study, the findings suggest that generational age and technological familiarity may determine interpretations of online victimization.
Allison, P. D. (2002). Missing Data: Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 55(1), 193-196. Bennett, S., Maton, K., & Kervin, L. (2008). The 'Digital Natives' Debate: A Critical Review of the Evidence. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(5), 775-786. Bottino, S. M. B., Bottino, C., Regina, C. G., Correia, A. V. L., & Ribeiro, W. S. (2015). Cyber bullying and Adolescent Mental Health: Systematic Review. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 31(3), 463-475. Buckingham, D. (2006). Is There a Digital Generation? Digital Generations, 1-13. Chayko, M. (2012). Connecting: How we form social bonds and communities in the Internet age. Suny Press. DeLara, E. W. (2012). Why Adolescents Don't Disclose Incidents of Bullying and Harassment. Journal of School Violence, 11(4), 288-305. Dennis, A. R., & Valacich, J. S. (1999). Rethinking Media Richness: Towards a Theory of Media Synchronicity. In Systems Sciences, 1999. HICSS-32. Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 10-pp). IEEE. DeVoe, J., & Murphy, C. (2011). Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying: Results from the 2009 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Web Tables. NCES 2011-336. National Center for Education Statistics. DeWall, C. N., Buffardi, L. E., Bonser, I., & Campbell, W. K. (2011). Narcissism and Implicit Attention Seeking: Evidence from Linguistic Analyses of Social Networking and Online Presentation. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(1), 57-62. Diamond, L., & Plattner, M. F. (2012). Liberation Technology: Social Media and the Struggle for Democracy. JHU Press. Dong, Y., & Peng, C. Y. J. (2013). Principled Missing Data Methods for Researchers. SpringerPlus, 2(1), 1. Driskell, J. E., & Salas, E. (Eds.). (2013). Stress and Human Performance. Psychology Press. Duggan, M., & Brenner, J. (2013). The Demographics of Social Media Users, 2012 (Vol. 14). Washington, DC: Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project. Duggan, M., Ellison, N., Lampe, C., Lenhart, A., Madden, M. (2015). Social Media Update: While Facebook Remains the Most Popular Site. Other Platforms See Higher Rates of Growth. Pew Internet & American Life Project. Eiland, L., & Romeo, R. D. (2013). Stress and the Developing Adolescent Brain. Neuroscience, 249, 162-171. Guzy, N., & Leitgöb, H. (2015). Assessing Mode Effects in Online and Telephone Victimization Surveys. International Review of Victimology, 21(1), 101-131. Groves, R. M., & Peytcheva, E. (2008). The Impact of Non-response Rates on Non-response Bias a Meta-analysis. Public Opinion Quarterly, 72(2), 167-189. Heverly, R. A. (2007). Growing up Digital: Control and the Pieces of a Digital Life. Digital Young, Innovation, and the Unexpected. MIT Press. Howe, N., & Strauss, W. (2009). Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation. Vintage. Jantz, G. L. P. D., & McMurray, A. (2009). Healing the Scars of Emotional Abuse. Revell. Jones, S. (2009). Relational Messages. In H. Reis & S. Specher (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Human Relationships. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Jones, L. M., Mitchell, K. J., & Finkelhor, D. (2013). Online Harassment in Context: Trends From Three Youth Internet Safety Surveys (2000, 2005, 2010). Psychology of Violence, 3(1), 53. Juvonen, J., & Gross, E. F. (2008). Extending the School Grounds? Bullying Experiences in Cyberspace. Journal of School Health, 78(9), 496-505. Kaplowitz, M. D., Lupi, F., Couper, M. P., & Thorp, L. (2011). The Effect of Invitation Design on Web Survey Response Rates. Social Science Computer Review, 0894439311419084. Kim, N. S. (2009). Website Proprietorship and Online Harassment. Utah Law Review. Lapidot-Lefler, N., & Barak, A. (2012). Effects of Anonymity, Invisibility, and Lack of Eye-contact on Toxic Online Disinhibition. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(2), 434-443. Liu, S. H., Liao, H. L., & Pratt, J. A. (2009). Impact of Media richness and Flow on E-learning Technology Acceptance. Computers & Education, 52(3), 599-607. Lengel, R. H., & Daft, R. L. (1989). The Selection of Communication Media as an Executive Skill. The Academy of Management Executive (1987-1989), 225-232. Madden, M. (2012). Privacy Management on Social Media Sites. Pew Internet Report, 1-20. Menesini, E., & Nocentini, A. (2009). Cyberbullying Definition and Measurement. Journal of Psychology, 217(4), 230-232. Nock, H. J., Iyengar, G., & Neti, C. (2004). Multimodal Processing by Finding Common Cause. Communications of the ACM, 47(1), 51-56. Nordin, M., & Nordin, S. (2013). Psychometric Evaluation and Normative Data of the Swedish Version of the 10‐item Perceived Stress Scale. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 54(6), 502-507. Nusselder, A. (2009). Interface Fantasy: A Lacanian Cyborg Ontology. MIT Press. Otondo, R. F., Van Scotter, J. R., Allen, D. G., & Palvia, P. (2008). The Complexity of Richness: Media, Message, and Communication Outcomes. Information & Management, 45(1), 21-30. Palfrey, J., & Gasser, U. (2013). Born Digital: Understanding the First Generation of Digital Natives. Basic Books. Perreault, S. (2011). Self-reported Internet victimization in Canada, 2009. Juristat, 3, 85-002. Prensky, M. (2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants: Part I. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1-6. Prensky, M. (2009). Homosapiens Digital: From Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom. Innovate: Journal of Online Education, 5(3), 1. Privitera, Carmel, and Marilyn Anne Campbell. Cyber bullying: The New Face of Workplace Bullying? CyberPsychology & Behavior 12(4), 395-400. Raskauskas, J., & Stoltz, A. D. (2007). Involvement in Traditional and Electronic bullying among adolescents. Developmental psychology, 43(3), 564. Reyns, B. W., Henson, B., & Fisher, B. S. (2011). Being Pursued Online Applying Cyberlifestyle–routine Activities Theory to Cyberstalking Victimization. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 38(11), 1149-1169. Sheer, V. C., & Chen, L. (2004). Improving Media Richness Theory a Study of Interaction Goals, Message Equivalence, and Task Complexity in Manager-Subordinate Communication. Management Communication Quarterly, 18(1), 76-93. Sevcíkova, A., & Smahel, D. (2009). Online Harassment and Cyber bullying in the Czech Republic: Comparison Across Age Groups. Zeitschrift für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, 217(4), 227-229. Statista. (2015). Number of Social Network Users Worldwide From 2010 to 2018 (In Billions). Statista. Retrieved from http://www.statista.com/statistics/278414/number-of-worldwide-social-network-users. Suler, J. (2004). The Online Disinhibition Effect. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 7(3), 321-326. Tandon, S. D., Dariotis, J. K., Tucker, M. G., & Sonenstein, F. L. (2013). Coping, Stress, and Social Support Associations with Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior among Urban Adolescents and Young Adults: Revelations from a Cluster Analysis. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52(5), 627-633. Todd, P. (2014). Extreme Mean: Trolls, Bullies and Predators Online. Penguin Random House. Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2011). Online Communication Among Adolescents: An Integrated Model of its Attraction, Opportunities, and Risks. Journal of Adolescent Health, 48(2), 121-127. Walrave, M., & Heirman, W. (2011). Cyber bullying: Predicting Victimisation and Perpetration. Children & Society, 25(1), 59-72. Watzlawick, P., Bavelas, J. B., Jackson, D. D., & O'Hanlon, B. (2011). Pragmatics of Human Communication: A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies and Paradoxes. WW Norton & Company. Wellman, B., & Haythornthwaite, C. (Eds.). (2008). The Internet in Everyday Life. John Wiley & Sons. Whang, L. S. M., Lee, S., & Chang, G. (2003). Internet Over-users' Psychological Profiles: A Behavior Sampling Analysis on Internet Addiction. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 6(2), 143-150. Wilson, S. M., & Peterson, L. C. (2002). The Anthropology of Online Communities. Annual Review of Anthropology, 449-467. Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2008). How Risky are Social Networking Sites? A Comparison of Places Online Where Youth Sexual Solicitation and Harassment Occurs. Pediatrics, 121(2), 350-357. Zande, K. (2009). When the School Bully Attacks in the Living Room: Using Tinker to Regulate Off-Campus Student Cyber bullying. Barry L. Rev., 13, 103.