Report Open Access

A report of AMR and AMU data (and data collection activities) in livestock and humans in the six participating countries, and with indication to its quality, comparability and purpose.

Mesa-Varona, O; Boone, I; Tenhagen, B-A


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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a serious and global threat to public health that requires&lt;br&gt;
urgent actions all over the world. ARDIG is a One Health European Joint Programme (EJP) project&lt;br&gt;
which is carried out under the need to increase knowledge about AMR (1). The project aims to&lt;br&gt;
understand the dynamic of AMR by assessing national trends, Farm/hospital trends and isolate&lt;br&gt;
trends from six different European countries (Spain, Norway, Germany, Netherlands, France and&lt;br&gt;
United Kingdom) with the final objective of developing strategies that help to reduce the spread of&lt;br&gt;
resistant bacteria at European level.&lt;br&gt;
This report is focussed on defining and describing available epidemiological data from humans,&lt;br&gt;
animals (especially cattle, poultry and pig), food and environment and data collection systems in the&lt;br&gt;
5 EU countries, Norway and in Europe addressing the task 1.1. of WP1 ARDIG of exploring and&lt;br&gt;
collecting data available on AMR and AMU.&lt;br&gt;
Surveillance and monitoring systems are highly relevant to control AMU and AMR being one out of&lt;br&gt;
five strategies of Global Action Plan (GAP) of WHO(2).&lt;br&gt;
However, major challenges need to be faced up in order to harmonize data on AMU and AMR area.&lt;br&gt;
Thus, AMR surveillance and monitoring systems vary substantially in the data type collected among&lt;br&gt;
sectors such as antimicrobials tested, type of samples, sampling design, laboratory methods and&lt;br&gt;
choice of breakpoints, analysis and reporting. Likewise, AMU data is difficult to obtain and AMU&lt;br&gt;
collection systems are based on different sources such as sales or wholesale distribution, imports,&lt;br&gt;
production, clinical or prescribing data (3).&lt;br&gt;
The harmonization process between AMU and AMR, which entails a series of difficulties based on&lt;br&gt;
characteristics previously defined, is of great relevance to enable to compare data.&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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